hepatic steatosis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jiaqi Chen ◽  
Shihui Lei ◽  
Yueye Huang ◽  
Xiaojuan Zha ◽  
Lei Gu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) has a critical effect on obesity as well as its associated comorbidities. The present study focused on analyzing serum LCN2 levels of obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and on determining relationship of hepatic steatosis improvement with LCN2 levels after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Methods This work enrolled ninety patients with obesity and NAFLD. Twenty-three of them underwent LSG. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters and serum LCN2 levels were determined at baseline and those at 6-month post-LSG. Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) measured by FibroScan was adopted for evaluating hepatic steatosis. Results Among severe obesity patients, serum LCN2 levels were significantly increased (111.59 ± 51.16 ng/mL vs. 92.68 ± 32.68 ng/mL, P = 0.035). The CAP value was higher indicating higher liver fat content (360.51 ± 45.14 dB/m vs. 340.78 ± 45.02 dB/m, P = 0.044). With regard to surgical patients, liver function, glucose, and lipid levels were significantly improved after surgery. Serum LCN2 levels significantly decreased (119.74 ± 36.15 ng/mL vs. 87.38 ± 51.65 ng/mL, P = 0.001). Decreased CAP indicated a significant decrease in liver fat content (358.48 ± 46.13 dB/m vs. 260.83 ± 69.64 dB/m, P < 0.001). The decrease in LCN2 levels was significantly related to the reduced hepatic fat content and improvement in steatosis grade after adjusting for gender, age, and BMI decrease. Conclusions Serum LCN2 levels are related to obesity and NAFLD. The decreased serum LCN2 levels could be an indicator of hepatic steatosis improvement.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nancy de los Ángeles Segura-Azuara ◽  
Carlos Daniel Varela-Chinchilla ◽  
Plinio A. Trinidad-Calderón

Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), formerly known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, is the most prevalent liver disorder worldwide. Historically, its diagnosis required biopsy, even though the procedure has a variable degree of error. Therefore, new non-invasive strategies are needed. Consequently, this article presents a thorough review of biopsy-free scoring systems proposed for the diagnosis of MAFLD. Similarly, it compares the severity of the disease, ranging from hepatic steatosis (HS) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to fibrosis, by contrasting the corresponding serum markers, clinical associations, and performance metrics of these biopsy-free scoring systems. In this regard, defining MAFLD in conjunction with non-invasive tests can accurately identify patients with fatty liver at risk of fibrosis and its complications. Nonetheless, several biopsy-free scoring systems have been assessed only in certain cohorts; thus, further validation studies in different populations are required, with adjustment for variables, such as body mass index (BMI), clinical settings, concomitant diseases, and ethnic backgrounds. Hence, comprehensive studies on the effects of age, morbid obesity, and prevalence of MAFLD and advanced fibrosis in the target population are required. Nevertheless, the current clinical practice is urged to incorporate biopsy-free scoring systems that demonstrate adequate performance metrics for the accurate detection of patients with MAFLD and underlying conditions or those with contraindications of biopsy.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiaohui Wei ◽  
Jielei Zhang ◽  
Min Tang ◽  
Xuejiao Wang ◽  
Nengguang Fan ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. The fat mass and obesity–associated protein (FTO) has been shown to be involved in obesity; however, its role in NAFLD and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Methods: FTO expression was first examined in the livers of patients with NAFLD and animal and cellular models of NAFLD using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Next, its role in lipid accumulation in hepatocytes was assessed both in vitro and in vivo via gene overexpression and knockdown studies. Results: FTO expression was increased in the livers of mice and humans with hepatic steatosis, probably due to its decreased ubiquitination. FTO overexpression in HepG2 cells induced triglyceride accumulation, whereas FTO knockdown exerted an opposing effect. Consistent with the findings of in vitro studies, adeno-associated viruses 8 (AAV8)-mediated FTO overexpression in the liver promoted hepatic steatosis in C57BL/6J mice. Mechanistically, FTO inhibited the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in hepatocytes. Activation of PPARα by the PPARα agonist GW7647 reversed lipid accumulation in hepatocytes induced by FTO overexpression.Conclusions: Overall, FTO expression is increased in NAFLD, and it promotes hepatic steatosis by targeting PPARα.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fei Zhou ◽  
Mingning Ding ◽  
Yiqing Gu ◽  
Guifang Fan ◽  
Chuanyang Liu ◽  
...  

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), manifested as the aberrant accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes and inflammation, has become an important cause of advanced liver diseases and hepatic malignancies worldwide. However, no effective therapy has been approved yet. Aurantio-obtusin (AO) is a main bioactive compound isolated from Cassia semen that has been identified with multiple pharmacological activities, including improving adiposity and insulin resistance. However, the ameliorating effects of AO on diet-induced NAFLD and underlying mechanisms remained poorly elucidated. Our results demonstrated that AO significantly alleviated high-fat diet and glucose-fructose water (HFSW)-induced hepatic steatosis in mice and oleic acid and palmitic acid (OAPA)-induced lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. Remarkably, AO was found to distinctly promote autophagy flux and influence the degradation of lipid droplets by inducing AMPK phosphorylation. Additionally, the induction of AMPK triggered TFEB activation and promoted fatty acid oxidation (FAO) by activating PPARα and ACOX1 and decreasing the expression of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis. Meanwhile, the lipid-lowing effect of AO was significantly prevented by the pretreatment with inhibitors of autophagy, PPARα or ACOX1, respectively. Collectively, our study suggests that AO ameliorates hepatic steatosis via AMPK/autophagy- and AMPK/TFEB-mediated suppression of lipid accumulation, which opens new opportunities for pharmacological treatment of NAFLD and associated complications.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
J. Samael Rodríguez-Sanabria ◽  
Rebeca Escutia-Gutiérrez ◽  
Rebeca Rosas-Campos ◽  
Juan S. Armendáriz-Borunda ◽  
Ana Sandoval-Rodríguez

Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is characterized by hepatic steatosis accompanied by one of three features: overweight or obesity, T2DM, or lean or normal weight with evidence of metabolic dysregulation. It is distinguished by excessive fat accumulation in hepatocytes, and a decrease in the liver's ability to oxidize fats, the accumulation of ectopic fat, and the activation of proinflammatory pathways. Chronic damage will keep this pathophysiologic cycle active causing progression from hepatic steatosis to cirrhosis and eventually, hepatocarcinoma. Epigenetics affecting gene expression without altering DNA sequence allows us to study MAFLD pathophysiology from a different perspective, in which DNA methylation processes, histone modifications, and miRNAs expression have been closely associated with MAFLD progression. However, these considerations also faced us with the circumstance that modifying those epigenetics patterns might lead to MAFLD regression. Currently, epigenetics is an area of great interest because it could provide new insights in therapeutic targets and non-invasive biomarkers. This review comprises an update on the role of epigenetic patterns, as well as innovative therapeutic targets and biomarkers in MAFLD.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Laura M. de Jong ◽  
Zhengzheng Zhang ◽  
Yvette den Hartog ◽  
Timothy J. P. Sijsenaar ◽  
Renata Martins Cardoso ◽  
...  

AbstractProtein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) is a co-activator of liver X receptor capable of selectively modulating hepatic triglyceride synthesis. Here we investigated whether pharmacological PRMT3 inhibition can diminish the hepatic steatosis extent and lower plasma lipid levels and atherosclerosis susceptibility. Hereto, male hyperlipidemic low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice were fed an atherogenic Western-type diet and injected 3 times per week intraperitoneally with PRMT3 inhibitor SGC707 or solvent control. Three weeks into the study, SGC707-treated mice developed severe pruritus and scratching-associated skin lesions, leading to early study termination. SGC707-treated mice exhibited 50% lower liver triglyceride stores as well as 32% lower plasma triglyceride levels. Atherosclerotic lesions were virtually absent in all experimental mice. Plasma metabolite analysis revealed that levels of taurine-conjugated bile acids were ~ threefold increased (P < 0.001) in response to SGC707 treatment, which was paralleled by systemically higher bile acid receptor TGR5 signalling. In conclusion, we have shown that SGC707 treatment reduces hepatic steatosis and plasma triglyceride levels and induces pruritus in Western-type diet-fed LDL receptor knockout mice. These findings suggest that pharmacological PRMT3 inhibition can serve as therapeutic approach to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and dyslipidemia/atherosclerosis, when unwanted effects on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism can be effectively tackled.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 261
Author(s):  
Ting-Yu Chang ◽  
Chien-Hsien Wu ◽  
Chi-Yang Chang ◽  
Fu-Jen Lee ◽  
Bei-Wen Wang ◽  
...  

Few studies on humans have comprehensively evaluated the intake composition of methyl-donor nutrients (MDNs: choline, betaine, and folate) in relation to visceral obesity (VOB)-related hepatic steatosis (HS), the hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases. In this case–control study, we recruited 105 patients with HS and 104 without HS (controls). HS was diagnosed through ultrasound examination. VOB was measured using a whole-body analyzer. MDN intake was assessed using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. After adjustment for multiple HS risk factors, total choline intake was the most significant dietary determinant of HS in patients with VOB (Beta: −0.41, p = 0.01). Low intake of choline (<6.9 mg/kg body weight), betaine (<3.1 mg/kg body weight), and folate (<8.8 μg/kg body weight) predicted increased odds ratios (ORs) of VOB-related HS (choline: OR: 22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.5–80; betaine: OR: 14, 95% CI: 4.4–50; and folate: OR: 19, 95% CI: 5.2–74). Combined high intake of choline and betaine, but not folate, was associated with an 81% reduction in VOB-related HS (OR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.05–0.69). Our data suggest that the optimal intake of choline and betaine can minimize the risk of VOB-related HS in a threshold-dependent manner.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Shigeru Murakami ◽  
Chihiro Hirazawa ◽  
Rina Yoshikawa ◽  
Toshiki Mizutani ◽  
Takuma Ohya ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The obesity epidemic has become a serious public health problem in many countries worldwide. Seaweed has few calories and is rich in active nutritional components necessary for health promotion and disease prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Campylaephora hypnaeoides J. Agardh (C. hypnaeoides), an edible seaweed traditionally eaten in Japan, on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and related metabolic diseases in mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into the following groups: normal diet group, HF diet group, HF diet supplemented with 2% C. hypnaeoides, and HF diet supplemented with 6% C. hypnaeoides. After 13 weeks of treatment, the weight of the white adipose tissue and liver, and the serum levels of glucose, insulin, adipokines, and lipids were measured. Hepatic levels of adipokines, oxidant markers, and antioxidant markers were also determined. Insulin resistance was assessed by a glucose tolerance test. Polysaccharides of C. hypnaeoides were purified and their molecular weight was determined by high-performance seize exclusion chromatography. The anti-inflammatory effects of purified polysaccharides were evaluated in RAW264.7 cells. Results Treatment of HF diet-induced obese mice with C. hypnaeoides for 13 weeks suppressed the increase in body weight and white adipose tissue weight. It also ameliorated insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hepatic steatosis, and hypercholesterolemia. The ingestion of an HF diet increased serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), while it decreased serum adiponectin levels. In the liver, an HF diet markedly increased the MDA, TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, while it decreased glutathione and superoxide dismutase. These metabolic changes induced by HF diet feeding were ameliorated by dietary C. hypnaeoides. Purified polysaccharides and ethanol extract from C. hypnaeoides inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced overproduction of nitric oxide and TNF-α in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Conclusions The present results indicated that C. hypnaeoides was able to alleviate HF diet-induced metabolic disorders, including obesity, hyperglycemia, hepatic steatosis, and hypercholesterolemia by attenuating inflammation and improving the antioxidant capacity in mice. Polysaccharides and polyphenols may be involved in these beneficial effects of C. hypnaeoides.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 258
Author(s):  
Luisa Lampignano ◽  
Rossella Donghia ◽  
Annamaria Sila ◽  
Ilaria Bortone ◽  
Rossella Tatoli ◽  
...  

Hepatic steatosis, often known as fatty liver, is the most common hepatic disease in Western countries. The latest guidelines for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease emphasize lifestyle measures, such as changing unhealthy eating patterns. Using a propensity score-matching approach, this study investigated the effect of adhering to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on fatty liver risk in an older population (≥65 years) from Southern Italy. We recruited 1.403 subjects (53.6% men, ≥65 years) who completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and underwent clinical assessment between 2015 and 2018. For the assessment of the liver fat content, we applied the Fatty Liver Index (FLI). To evaluate the treatment effect of the MedDiet, propensity score matching was performed on patients with and without FLI > 60. After propensity score-matching with the MedDiet pattern as treatment, we found a higher consumption of red meat (p = 0.04) and wine (p = 0.04) in subjects with FLI > 60. Based on the FLI, the inverse association shown between adherence to the MedDiet and the risk of hepatic steatosis shows that the MedDiet can help to prevent hepatic steatosis. Consuming less red and processed meat, as well as alcoholic beverages, may be part of these healthy lifestyle recommendations.


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