serum alpha fetoprotein
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2022 ◽  
pp. 106689692110699
Tomoyuki Otani ◽  
Hiroaki Kanemura ◽  
Masatomo Kimura ◽  
Seiichiro Mitani ◽  
Masayuki Takeda ◽  

Only four cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma with a yolk sac tumor (YST) component have been reported in the English literature. No genetic investigation has been performed in these cases. We report a case of colorectal adenocarcinoma in which the recurrent tumor had a YST component. A 49-year-old woman presented with a pelvic tumor three years after endoscopic mucosal resection of sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma. The pelvic tumor consisted of an undifferentiated carcinoma component and a YST component. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level was elevated to 42 ng/mL. Treatment as conventional colorectal carcinoma produced some anticancer effects, but the patient died 14 months after the recurrence and 49 months after the EMR. With the help of the next-generation sequencing results of the recurrent tumor, APC c.835 − 8A > G and TP53 c.524G > A (p.R175H) mutations were identified by direct sequencing in both the primary and the recurrent tumors, confirming the relationship between the two metachronous tumors.

2021 ◽  
pp. 106689692110479
Gorana Gasljevic ◽  
Matthias S. Matter ◽  
Olga Blatnik ◽  
Mojca Unk ◽  
Stefan Dirnhofer

Background: NUT carcinoma is a highly aggressive and rare subset of squamous cell carcinoma with grim prognosis. It is under-recognized by both pathologists and oncologists. Recognition is challenging due to its rareness and the fact that its clinical and laboratory features as well as morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics may mimic other malignancies. Case presentation: An interesting case of NUT carcinoma in a 47-year-old male with a large tumor mass in the inferior part of the mediastinum and left lung and increased levels of serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is described. Immunohistochemical analysis of both the primary tumor in a bronchoscopy specimen and an excisional biopsy of a subcutaneous metastasis showed positivity for AFP and leukocyte common antigen (LCA) that were misleading and resulted in diagnostic pitfalls of mediastinal germ cell tumor (clinically) and hematolymphoid neoplasm (pathologic report). Immunohistochemical demonstration of NUT protein expression revealed the proper diagnosis, which was further confirmed by RNA sequencing revealing a BRD4- NUTM1 gene fusion.Conclusions: Since NUT carcinoma can show a wide spectrum of histological and immunophenotypic features and can clinically mimic other tumors, use of RNA sequencing with identification of specific NUTM1 fusion partner could be crucial when there are discrepant clinical and histopathological findings. As well, since the category of so-called NUTM1-rearranged neoplasms is rapidly expanding, identification of NUTM1 fusion partner may be essential for the appropriate clinical management.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (A) ◽  
pp. 887-893
Nur Rahadiani ◽  
Ignasia Andhini Retnowulan ◽  
Marini Stephanie ◽  
Diah Rini Handjari ◽  
Ening Krisnuhoni

Background. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary liver cancer. In addition to its high incidence, the disease burden is high due to its poor prognosis and high recurrence rate. Some of the currently known clinicopathologic prognostic factors include alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level, histologic grade, and microvascular invasion. At the molecular level, β-catenin is one of the most common driver mutation found in HCC. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulates cellular processes related to initiation, growth, survival, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis. Although the underlying pathogenesis of hepatocarcinogenesis is known, clinical application warrants a greater understanding of the molecular characteristics and tumor phenotype, especially for determining the prognosis. This study aims to analyze the expression of β-catenin and its association with AFP, histologic grade, and microvascular invasion. Materials and methods. Thirty-five samples of surgically resected HCCs at Cipto Mangunkusumo National Referral Hospital were examined. Diagnoses were made based on histopathological and immunohistochemical findings followed by β-catenin staining. β-catenin expression was analyzed to determine difference between variables. Results and conclusions. Here we show that β-catenin expression is significantly associated with low serum alpha-fetoprotein and well to moderate differentiation Implications. Strong nuclear β-catenin expression implies better prognosis in HCC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 80-82
Rashes Shrestha ◽  
Niraj Bhattarai ◽  
Binay Thakur ◽  
Mukti Devkota ◽  
Rajesh Kumar Mandel ◽  

In children, commonest liver tumor is hepatoblastoma. We present a 14-month-old male child who presented with abdominal distension and loose stool. Radiological imaging revealed solid hepatic mass. Hematological investigations revealed anemia, thrombocytosis and high Serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) level. Ultrasound (USG) guided FNAC confirmed the mass to be hepatoblastoma. CT scan revealed hepatoblastoma PRETEXT stage III. The patient underwent 6 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and responded to POSTTEXT stage II. Left hemi-hepatectomy was done with clear resectin margins. Complete surgical excision of the mass after preoperative chemotherapy remains the mainstay of the treatment of locally advanced hepatoblastoma. 

Liver Cancer ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Ha Il Kim ◽  
Jihyun An ◽  
Ji Yoon Kim ◽  
Hyun Phil Shin ◽  
Seo Young Park ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> In spite of the high frequency of recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after resection, little evidence exists to directly help to plan a reasonable schedule for the frequency and intensity of postoperative surveillance for recurrence. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> 1,918 consecutive patients with Child-Turcott-Pugh class A who had T1- or T2-staged HCCs detected by active surveillance and underwent curative resection for their tumors at 3 teaching hospitals in Korea, followed by recurrence screening at 6-monthly or shorter intervals. To set an evidence-based timetable for postoperative surveillance, we investigated the annual hazard rate of recurrence through postoperative year 10 in patients undergoing hepatectomy for HCC, and the clinical and morphological phenotypes associated with early versus late recurrence. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The estimated hazard rate for recurrence peaked during year 0–1 (21.7%), with a subsequent gradual decrease through 5 years, followed by stabilization at &#x3c;7.0% until year 10, except in the case of cirrhotics, who had a rate of 10.5% during year 4–5. Multivariate time-to-recurrence analysis by recurrence period revealed that serum alpha-fetoprotein ≥200 ng/mL, larger size of tumor, tumor multiplicity, microvascular invasion, capsular invasion, and higher METAVIR fibrosis stage were significantly related to disease recurrence within 5 years after resection, while cirrhosis (METAVIR F4) alone was related to disease recurrence beyond 5 years (<i>P</i>s &#x3c; 0.05). Post-relapse overall survival was better in the latter group (<i>p</i> = 0.033). <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Our chronological and morphological insights into recurrence after resection of primary HCCs may help implement an optimal intensity of surveillance for recurrence.

Medicina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (8) ◽  
pp. 850
Ottavia De Simoni ◽  
Andrea Barina ◽  
Mario Gruppo ◽  
Antonio Scapinello ◽  
Vasileios Mourmouras ◽  

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) typically presents in patients with a chronic liver disease and rarely develops in healthy liver, especially within an accessory liver lobe. We present a case of a healthy 64-years-old woman who showed a serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) value of 226.3 µg/mL during a screening blood test. Past medical history was negative for chronic liver disease or cirrhosis. Intraoperative finding was an ovaloid mass connected with the second hepatic segment by a thin pedicle of hepatic tissue. Lesion was safely resected by laparoscopic approach. Histopathology analysis showed a trabecular hepatocellular carcinoma. After a 6-month follow up, there was no evidence of recurrent disease. This case report showed how serum AFP remains a highly sensitive marker, although the presentation of HCC was unusual. To our knowledge, this is the second case reported in the literature.

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