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Nayana K. ◽  
Manjula K. T.

Purpose: Postmodernism is a general movement that developed in the late 20th century across the arts, philosophy, art, architecture, and criticism, marking a disappearance from modernism. The term has been more often used to describe a historical age which followed after modernity. Postmodernism is a period of uprising which refers to ups and downs in each walk of life and the different disciplines of knowledge be it literary work, philosophy, or science. Postmodern literature revokes some modern literary methods by transforming them. Historiographic Metafiction is a contradictory term that consists of two opposite categories such as history and metafiction. It is having dual representations because such writings reflect the reality as well as fictional position. An attempt is made by the Post-colonial Indian English writers to liberate Indian English literature from the foreign bondage. Historical events such as agitations, migration, movements, refugees, colonial hegemony; social-economic and cultural problems like encounter of the east-west, caste, and class became the concerns of the writers. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper is prepared by making a study of Primary source and accumulating secondary data from educational websites and written publications. This qualitative research is carried out by studying and interpreting the existing knowledge on the subject. The paper tries to analyze the historiographic metafictional features as depicted in The Shadow Lines by Amitav Ghosh. Findings/Result: After reviewing many articles, books and thesis it has been found that the paper aims to study Amitav Ghosh's notions like ‟ Nationhood and National distinctiveness in "The Shadow Lines” as a reminiscence novel, highlights a few historical happenings like the Second World War, the Swadeshi movement, and the Partition of India in 1947 and communal uprisings in Bangladesh and India. The ardent nationalism upheld by the protagonist that is the narrator’s grandmother is questioned and re-analysed. Ghosh searches for appropriateness of traditional identity such as nation and nationalism. Originality/Value: This paper makes a study of the major character Thamma with special reference to her concerns of Nationhood and Nationality. The identity of Thamma in the novel is given prominence being a woman she stands for her thoughts and identifies her as an individual who faced tragedy but still who had the courage to raise her voice till the end. Paper Type: Analytical Research paper.

2022 ◽  
Thayalan Rao Appalasamy ◽  
Fahrol Fahmy ◽  
Tan Jih Huei ◽  
Aina Shafiza ◽  
Tuan Nur Azmah

Abstract Hollow viscus herniation through a defect between vesicouterine pouch following previous pelvis surgery is exceedingly rare. There was only 1 similar case reported in the English literature. In this current report, we describe a 84-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal pain. She had a history of previous gynecology surgery. Computed tomography of abdomen showed small bowel obstruction with transition zone at the pelvis. Laparotomy revealed small bowel loops trapped in the vesico-uterine space via a narrow defect about 1.5cm. The detailed clinical summary and operative management are described in the report.

Sarah Braungart ◽  
Charlotte Victoria Smith

Abstract Aim The majority of ovarian tumors in children are benign, with good prognosis following complete resection. Little is published on the incidence of tumor recurrence and metachronous disease, and follow-up management of children with benign ovarian tumors (BOTs) remains a matter of debate. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the incidence and timing of recurrence and metachronous disease in children with BOTs in pediatric literature. Methods Comprehensive literature searches of the English literature (PubMed, OVID, EMBASE databases) from inception to present according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis guidelines. Outcomes for tumor recurrence and metachronous disease were synthesized. Results Nineteen studies comprising 1,069 patients with BOTs were included in the analysis. All studies were retrospective cohort studies of children less than 18 years old. A total of 56 events of recurrence or metachronous disease were reported in these patients. The overall risk of recurrence/metachronous event occurrence was 5.2%/2.9%. Seventy-five percent of events occurred within the first 4 years following resection. Conclusion Although the studies identified are few and heterogeneous, they demonstrate a significant risk of tumor recurrence and metachronous disease for children following resection of a BOT.Especially following total unilateral oophorectomy, these children are at risk of losing the contralateral ovary in case of metachronous disease.Immediate discharge from follow-up, therefore, does not appear safe. The majority of events occurred within the first 4 years following resection. Follow-up for children following resection of a BOT should, therefore, be continued for a minimum of 4 years following surgery. Larger, long-term prospective studies are required to more accurately determine the true incidence and long-term outcomes for children and adolescents with these tumors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Zhi Xin Geng ◽  
Feng Gao ◽  
Junjing Guo ◽  
Bingzhou Guo ◽  
Chunyu Liu ◽  

Objective. By integrating meta-analysis and network pharmacology strategy, the clinical efficacy of Zhishe Tongluo capsule in the treatment of cerebral infarction was evaluated, and the intervention mechanism was preliminary explored. Methods. Through meta-analysis, the Chinese and English literature of the randomized controlled trial (RCT) of Zhishe Tongluo capsule in the treatment of cerebral infarction was comprehensively searched. Based on the standard of Na Pai, the quantitative literature was determined and the Review Manager data were statistically analyzed. Results. A total of 10 RCTs literatures were included. These literatures included a total of 1278 subjects, of which 670 were in the treatment group and 608 were in the control group. In terms of indicators of efficiency and adverse reaction rate, the treatment group was better than the control group. There was a statistical difference P < 0.05 ; a total of 559 chemical constituents and 2306 potential targets were obtained from the online database. Of these, 201 components, 145 targets, and 185 pathways were closely related to cerebral infarction. Conclusions. The available evidence indicates that the addition of Zhishe Tongluo capsule to the conventional treatment of Western medicine can improve the clinical efficacy of cerebral infarction and has some advantages in regulating blood lipids and hemorheology, but the overall evidence level is low, which still needs to be further supported by large-scale and multicenter RCTs; intervention of brain infarction by Zhishe Tongluo capsule is a comprehensive result of multicomponent and multi-target interactions. On the basis of the combined meta-analysis and network pharmacology in scientific attempts, it also provides a reference for the clinical evaluation of other drugs and mechanism research.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. e36-e43
Rebecca Smith ◽  
Bashir Mohamed ◽  
Jeremy Nettleton

BackgroundMyeloid sarcoma is a rare extramedullary tumour of immature granulocytes, most commonly involving the skin, bone, lymph nodes, and soft tissue. It is usually associated with a diagnosis of relapsed or de novo acute myeloid leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic transformation of a myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm, or can occur as isolated myeloid sarcoma.Case reportA 66-year-old female with a 7-year history of stable chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia presents with urgency, frequency, dysuria symptoms, and without new constitutional symptoms. She is found to have atypical, multifocal lesions on the right posterolateral wall of the bladder with associated hydronephrosis. Pathology reveals the diagnosis as myeloid sarcoma; surprisingly, bone marrow evaluation does not show evidence of acute leukaemic transformation.ConclusionsMyeloid sarcoma occurring in patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia is extremely rare, and there are no cases reported in the English literature of these patients developing lesions in the bladder. The urological manifestations of an underlying haematological malignancy are best managed with a combination of systemic chemotherapy and allogeneic stem cell transplant, and in this case, the only surgical intervention required was ureteric stenting and tissue biopsy. Although rare, it is essential to consider alternative diagnoses when confronted with an atypical bladder tumour; failure to do so may result in patient harm by exposure to unnecessary intervention and delay to potentially curative treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 18-21
Dwi Taurina Mila Wardhani

The Employment Skills Education Program (PKK) is a government assistance program that aims to prepare human resources who are skilled, have character, are competitive, and have the ability to innovate. This is an aid to industry-based courses and training and entrepreneurial opportunities. Through the results of initial observations that have been made, graduated students of English Literature Faculty of Letters UNARS do not have special courses on skills as a tour guide. Through the English for Tour Guide Training program those who are interested in following the skills as a tour guide are included as participants in the 2021 PKK program and will be trained to have competence as a tour guide. PKM program participants who gain the skills to become tour guides will be very useful as their provision to find work. In collaboration with the AUSEI course institution as a service partner for PKM activities, it is hoped that later PKK program participants will have a competency certificate to work. This training and mentoring are carried out for approximately three months where students are given English language guidance and training that focuses on the English for Tour Guide material. During the training, students also had the opportunity to discuss and ask questions if they encountered problems during the training to reach the right solution. The expected outcome of this PKM activity is that students have special skills in English about English for Guides as evidenced by a certificate of competence.   Keywords: English, English for Tour Guide, PKK program.

2022 ◽  
Norhanim Abdul Samat ◽  
Nur Alwani Syahirah Azmi ◽  
Tina Abdullah

This study examines how pre-service teachers assess the appropriateness of literary texts used by high school students in terms of learners’ age, linguistic needs, and language proficiency. It also aims to determine the relevance of the texts used to learners’ cultural understanding. The participants in this study were five pre-service teachers who participated in a content analysis study of five literary texts. They analyzed the content of the texts using the four categories of textbook evaluation criteria proposed by Tomlinson (2001), namely, media-specific criteria, content-specific criteria, learner-specific criteria, and language criteria. The evaluation results were positive. All participants agreed that all five texts were appropriate for high school learners, with average levels of compliance ranging from moderate to appropriate. In addition to selecting texts that are appropriate for the learners’ language level, the topics and issues addressed in the texts should also be appropriate for the learners’ interest, so the selection of literary texts is crucial. Finally, more local texts should be selected for the English literature curriculum to highlight local cultures and practices. It is expected that this study will contribute to English language teaching as the findings of this study will provide necessary information to those who are concerned with the selection of appropriate literary texts for schools. In addition, this study will raise awareness among teachers and curriculum designers of the need to consider learners’ level of competence when evaluating and selecting from the many literary texts available.

2022 ◽  
pp. 000348942110701
Cathleen C. Kuo ◽  
Ellen M. Piccillo ◽  
Jason C. DeGiovanni ◽  
Matt Kabalan ◽  
Gregg Zimmer ◽  

Objective: To report a case of herpes virus-associated nasopharyngitis in an adult patient. Methods: The patient’s medical record was reviewed for demographic and clinical data. For literature review, all case reports or other publications published in English literature were identified using Pubmed with the MeSH terms “herpes,” “nasopharyngitis,” and “upper respiratory infection.” Results: A 40-year-old male presented for nasal congestion and a suspected nasal mass. Computed tomography of the sinuses revealed edematous changes in the nasopharynx which exerted a downward mass effect at the right aspect of the soft palate. Flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy (FFL) revealed a lesion arising from the posterior aspect of the soft palate with extension into the posterior nasal cavity as well as copious mucopurulent secretions consistent with a superimposed acute sinusitis. Rigid nasal endoscopy demonstrated a friable and ulcerated lesion arising from the aforementioned anatomical location. Biopsy of this lesion and subsequent immunohistochemical analysis revealed a diagnosis of herpetic nasopharyngitis. Conclusions: Herpetic infection should be in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with atypical symptoms of nasopharyngitis. Early accurate diagnosis and appropriate specific management can limit the duration of disease course and prevent further complications.

2022 ◽  
pp. 106689692110699
Tomoyuki Otani ◽  
Hiroaki Kanemura ◽  
Masatomo Kimura ◽  
Seiichiro Mitani ◽  
Masayuki Takeda ◽  

Only four cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma with a yolk sac tumor (YST) component have been reported in the English literature. No genetic investigation has been performed in these cases. We report a case of colorectal adenocarcinoma in which the recurrent tumor had a YST component. A 49-year-old woman presented with a pelvic tumor three years after endoscopic mucosal resection of sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma. The pelvic tumor consisted of an undifferentiated carcinoma component and a YST component. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level was elevated to 42 ng/mL. Treatment as conventional colorectal carcinoma produced some anticancer effects, but the patient died 14 months after the recurrence and 49 months after the EMR. With the help of the next-generation sequencing results of the recurrent tumor, APC c.835 − 8A > G and TP53 c.524G > A (p.R175H) mutations were identified by direct sequencing in both the primary and the recurrent tumors, confirming the relationship between the two metachronous tumors.

Aksara ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 33 (2) ◽  
pp. 309-322
Heri Kuswoyo ◽  
Laila Ulsi Qodriani ◽  
Khairunnisa Khairunnisa

AbstractThe learner’s syntactical error analyses have long been interested in the second and foreign language researchers. This study aimed at investigating the syntactical error types, the form of error, and the frequencies of these errors that occurred in the sixth-semester student presentation on the conversation class at the English Literature Study Program in Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia. To achieve the objectives, the data were collected from the learner’s transcribed speech. The sampling of non-probability was used to select the classroom and participant’s characteristics. These data were collected by video recording, non- participant observation techniques, and documents. To classify the learner’s syntactical errors, Politzer Ramirez’s (1973) syntactical errors taxonomy was adopted. Further, the qualitative method was applied in this study. Based on the result of the analysis, there were 64 syntactical errors uttered by the learner. The results of the analysis were then categorized into three forms: phrases, clauses, and sentences. The results of this study showed that the learner often made the syntactical error in the form of sentences. That was 32 errors (50%). Furthermore, the study found that the amount of confusion was the most commonly uttered as the type of error (26,56%). The learner often got confused to make the right use between the number and the subject mentioned. Thus, the findings indicated that even though the learner considered as the best; yet the learner still possibly made some errors. Therefore, lecturers or instructors should raise the students’ syntactical error awareness. So that it could improve the student’ speaking skills in their level of English.Keywords: error analysis, syntactical error, conversation class, speaking skillsAbstrakAnalisis kesalahan sintaksis siswa telah lama menjadi hal yang menarik bagi peneliti bahasa kedua dan asing. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyelidiki jenis kesalahan sintaksis, bentuk kesalahan, dan frekuensi kesalahan tersebut pada presentasi siswa semester enam pada kelas percakapan di Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia. Untuk mencapai tujuannya, data dikumpulkan dari presentasi siswa yang telah ditranskripsikan. Sampling non-probabilitas diterapkan untuk memilih karakteristik kelas dan partisipan. Data tersebut dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan teknik perekaman video, pengamatan non-partisipan, dan dokumen. Untuk mengklasifikasikan kesalahan sintaksis mahasiswa, taksonomi kesalahan sintaksis Politzer dan Ramirez (1973) diadopsi. Lebih lanjut, metode kualitatif diterapkan dalam penelitian ini. Berdasarkan hasil analisis, terdapat 64 kesalahan sintaksis yang ditemukan pada presentasi siswa. Hasil analisis kemudian dikategorikan dalam tiga bentuk, yakni frase, klausa, dan kalimat. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa siswa sering membuat kesalahan sintaksis dalam bentuk kalimat, yakni 32 kesalahan (50%). Lebih jauh, penelitian ini menemukan bahwa ‘number of confusion’ merupakan jenis kesalahan yang sering diujarkan, yakni 26,56%. Pembelajar sering mengalami kebingungan dalam menggunakan antara nomor dan subjek yang disebutkan. Dengan demikian, temuan menunjukkan bahwa meskipun mahasiswa dianggap yang terbaik masih membuat beberapa kesalahan. Oleh karena itu, dosen atau instruktur harus meningkatkan kesadaran kesalahan sintaksis mahasiswa sehingga hal ini dapat meningkatkan keterampilan berbicara siswa di tingkat bahasa Inggris mereka.Kata kunci: analisis kesalahan, kesalahan sintaksis, kelas percakapan, keterampilan berbicara

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