suspended particulate
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2022 ◽  
Chong Fang ◽  
Pierre-Andre Jacinthe ◽  
Changchun Song ◽  
Chi Zhang ◽  
Kaishan Song

Raja Singh ◽  
Tushar Mondal ◽  
Anil Dewan

A study was conducted to see the effect of an opened window vs. a closed window in New Delhi in peak winters. This is the time when the PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations are the highest in the ambient air due to various external factors. A PM 2.5 and PM 10 air quality meter was used at a singular location near the window for 10 days with 9 readings taken during the daily working hours. Contrary to the possible conjectural belief, it was found that the window opened or closed did not have a substantial effect on the concentrations of the indoor levels of PM 2.5 and PM 10. The results showed that opening of the windows does not substantially affect the levels of the indoors with respect to the levels of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in the outdoors. Outdoors may provide the source of the particulate matter in the indoor, but due to diffusive effect, open windows play a key role in the reducing the indoor levels. This study was reconfirmed with options where the windows were opened and then closed and vice-versa. In all cases, the effect of the outdoor was not visible. To curb indoor particulate matter levels, isolation is not the solution. (200 words)

2022 ◽  
Vol 354 ◽  
pp. 00066
Clementina Sabina Moldovan ◽  
Liana-Simona Sbîrnă ◽  
Sebastian Sbîrnă

This paper aims to interpret and to use within a statistical analysis the concentration profiles of the main air pollutants – i.e., nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and suspended particulate matter (PM10) – results recorded during the first half of 2021 by two air quality monitoring stations in Craiova, which is an important metropolitan area in Southern Romania. Another goal of the paper is finding the best numerical diffusion model to fit the recorded values for PM10, as this pollutant seems to be the major problem, because its daily average is often higher than the European Union threshold, meaning that imperative measures have to be taken for reducing particulate matter concentration in Craiova (like in other major Romanian metropolitan areas), in order for Romania to get the exoneration regarding air pollution from the European Union and, of course, for its citizens to improve the quality of their lives.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (6) ◽  
pp. 3695
Christiane Do Nascimento Monte ◽  
Ana Paula De Castro Rodrigues ◽  
Sara Macedo ◽  
Carolina Ramos Régis ◽  
Edinelson Correa Saldanha ◽  

O Rio Tapajós é uma das maiores bacias hidrográficas da região Norte do país, e o crescimento populacional de algumas cidades amazônicas coloca em risco a qualidade das suas águas. A cidade de Santarém, no Oeste do Pará, é uma das maiores cidades paraenses e não tem uma rede de esgoto eficiente, logo boa parte do esgoto doméstico é lançado in natura em igarapés e no rio Tapajós, o que afeta diretamente a balneabilidade do rio, que é um dos destinos turísticos em ascensão no país, devido às praias de água doce, a qualidade do pescado, que é parte da dieta alimentar da região e pode ser um vetor de doenças, as quais podem aumentar os gastos com a saúde pública. Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência antrópica no rio Tapajós foi realizada uma amostragem em seis pontos do rio na região conhecida como a orla da cidade. Foram analisados parâmetros físico-químicos, biológicos e nutrientes), Apesar de boa parte dos parâmetros estarem em conformidade com a CONAMA 357/05, os parâmetros biológicos foram acima do permitido para a classe II, indicando influência antrópica. Os dados apontaram que a presença de material particulado em suspensão (MPS), coliformes totais e fósforo inorgânico dissolvido (PID), sugerem aumento da degradação da qualidade da água.  O estudo da queda na qualidade de água nos rios amazônicos é importante, pois a relação socioeconômica entre a população e os recursos hídricos é muito importante para a manutenção das funções ambientais, econômicas e sociais na região.   The anthropic influence on the water quality of the Tapajós River, in the city of Santarém-PA A B S T R A C TThe Tapajós River is one of the largest hydrographic basins of the Northern region of the country, and the population growth of some Amazonian cities puts the quality of its waters at risk. The city of Santarém, in western Pará, is one of the largest cities in Pará and does not have an efficient sewage system, so much of the domestic sewage is released in natura into streams and the Tapajós River, which directly affects the balneability of the river, which is one of the tourist destinations on the rise in the country, due to its freshwater beaches, the quality of the fish, which is part of the diet of the region and can be a vector of diseases, which can increase spending on public health. To evaluate the anthropic influence on the Tapajós River, sampling was carried out at six points on the river in the region known as the city edge. Although most of the parameters complied with CONAMA 357/05, the biological parameters were above the permitted for class II, indicating anthropic influence. The data pointed out that the presence of suspended particulate matter (SPM), total coliforms, and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), suggest increased degradation of water quality.  The study of the decline in water quality in Amazonian rivers is important because the socioeconomic relationship between the population and water resources is very important for the maintenance of environmental, economic, and social functions in the region. Keywords: Tapajós River, sewage, inorganic phosphorus, suspended particulate matter

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
M. Nowakowski ◽  
I. Rykowska ◽  
R. Wolski ◽  
P. Andrzejewski

AbstractThe aim of this paper is the presentation of the current state-of-the-art about the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxidized forms originating from Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) samples. The influence of SPM on health is twofold. SPM, as composed of small particles, is dangerous for the respiratory system. Additionally, SPM is a carrier of many hazardous compounds, particularly PAHs. Recently, several researches focus on the derivatives of PAHs, particularly nitro-, oxy- and hydroxy-PAHs, which are more dangerous than the parent PAHs. Both gas and high-performance liquid chromatography with various detection techniques are used to analyze both PAHs and their oxidized forms. Due to the appearance of these compounds in the environment, at a very low level, an analyte concentration step has to be applied prior to analysis. If GC and HPLC techniques are chiefly used as analytical tools for these analyses, the spectrum of analyte concentration procedures is very broad. Many analyte concentration techniques are proposed: from classic liquid-solid extractions, including Soxhlet technique, pressurized liquid extraction (ASE) or microwave oven (MWE) and sonic supported extraction to SPE techniques applications. However, one should remember that PAH determination methods are tools for solving the main problem, i.e., the evaluation the health hazard connected to the presence of SPM in air. Thus, the main drawback of several papers found in this review, i.e., the lack of information concerning limit of detection (LOD) of these methods makes their applicability very limited.

Geosciences ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
Matthias Baeye ◽  
Kaveh Purkiani ◽  
Henko de de Stigter ◽  
Benjamin Gillard ◽  
Michael Fettweis ◽  

The purpose of the study was to measure in situ the background suspended particulate matter concentration (SPMC) in the DISCOL area (SE Pacific) and its increase due to mechanical mobilization of the seabed. The disturbance experiment imitated future manganese nodule exploitations and was designed to measure the sediment plume generated by such activities. In the direct vicinity of the disturbance, landers equipped with acoustic and optical sensors measured the current velocities and the SPMC. The SPMC at the disturbance was easily up to 10 mg/L and thus about 200 times higher than the background concentration. The downstream sediment plume, measured by the lander, had a SPMC of about 1 mg/L. After tide reversal, the sediment plume was recorded a second time. A sediment transport model reproduced the plume dispersion. After rapid settling of the coarser fraction, a plume of hardly settling fine particles remained in suspension (and no deposition–resuspension cycles). The transport was controlled by the tides and by the vertical velocity component that resulted from bathymetrical differences. The plume may continue to disperse up to 100+ days (up to hundreds of km) depending on the particle size and until background concentration is reached.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 59
Yanying Wang ◽  
Yuying Li ◽  
Zonghua Ji ◽  
Feng Han ◽  
Dong Yang ◽  

In order to elucidate the impact of fortunei forest environment on overall health, the effect of the Cryptomeria fortunei forest environment on mice was examined. Using an OFT (Open Field Test), the behavior of mice in fortunei forest and in an indoor environment (used as a control) was analyzed, while minor changes in climate, oxygen, and suspended particulate matter were observed and recorded simultaneously. The results indicated that the two environments were significantly different in regard to relative humidity, wind speed, and the oxygen content of air, while there were no significant differences in temperature. Importantly, spontaneous activity behavioral indicators in mice were significantly different. Mice in the Cryptomeria fortunei environment (LS group) spent less time in the corners and near walls in comparison to mice in the indoor environment (CK group). Compared with indoor control mice, for the mice exposed to forest environments total distance traveled, central grid distance, frequency of movement through the central grid, frequency of standing, and body mass significantly increased; The number of fecal grains significantly decreased. The spontaneous activity behavioral indicators changed over time stages. In the early stages there were no differences, but after accumulation of environmental effects in the late stages, significant differences were evident. The above results showed that the Cryptomeria fortunei forest environment increased excitability and cognitive ability of mice, was able to effectively alleviate anxiety, and was able to emotionally relax and improve the appetite of the mice.

YMER Digital ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (12) ◽  
pp. 475-497
Nitin W Ingole ◽  
Sachin V Dharpal ◽  

It is witnessed that air pollution is an important issue regarding not only for human health but also for plants, animals and building materials. Increase in industrialisation, abundant use of automobiles, and network of highways, the quality of air of Amravati city is degrading day by day. The data has been collected for a period ranging from March 2020 to February 2021 for analysis and pollution forecasting model work. The concentration of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), Respiratory Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM), Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and Ozone (O3) have been monitored over successive periods of time and also data is collected from monitoring stations controlled by MPCB. Numerous studies have been proposed for predicting pollution concentrations and improvement of performance of predictable models is an important issue. As is well known, collaborative observations proved that it can improve predictive performance. In this study, multivariate linear regression approach-based model was constructed to predict the RSPM in the air using the meteorological (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, rainfall) and air quality monitoring data (SPM, NO2, SO2, O3). Correlation between measured and model predicted vales of RSPM were 0.717,0.691,0.64 and 0.60 for winter, summer, monsoon and annual seasons respectively. However, the regression model based on seasonal data for winter was found to be more effective.

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