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2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
pp. 503-522
Pablo D. Fajgelbaum ◽  
Amit Khandelwal ◽  
Wookun Kim ◽  
Cristiano Mantovani ◽  
Edouard Schaal

We study optimal dynamic lockdowns against COVID-19 within a commuting network. Our framework integrates canonical spatial epidemiology and trade models and is applied to cities with varying initial viral spread: Seoul, Daegu, and the New York City metropolitan area (NYM). Spatial lockdowns achieve substantially smaller income losses than uniform lockdowns. In the NYM and Daegu—with large initial shocks—the optimal lockdown restricts inflows to central districts before gradual relaxation, while in Seoul it imposes low temporal but large spatial variation. Actual commuting reductions were too weak in central locations in Daegu and the NYM and too strong across Seoul. (JEL H51, I12, I18, R23, R41)

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (6) ◽  
pp. 49-54
Xiaoli Yue ◽  
Yang Wang ◽  
Hong’ou Zhang

In this paper, nine indicators selected from three perspectives (convenience, environmental and location characteristics) and three regression models (OLS, SLM and SEM) are used to explore the influencing factors of housing sales vacancy in the Guangzhou Metropolitan Area, China. The results show that subway accessibility, peripheral aversion municipal facilities and distance from the CBD (Central Business District) are consistent with theoretical expectations. Subway accessibility is negatively correlated with the housing sales vacancy rates, while peripheral aversion municipal facilities and distance from the CBD are positively correlated with housing vacancy rates.

Changmin Im ◽  
Youngho Kim

The Seoul metropolitan area is one of the most populated metropolitan areas in the world; hence, Seoul’s COVID-19 cases are highly concentrated. This study identified local demographic and socio-economic characteristics that affected SARS-CoV-2 transmission to provide locally targeted intervention policies. For the effective control of outbreaks, locally targeted intervention policies are required since the SARS-CoV-2 transmission process is heterogeneous over space. To identify the local COVID-19 characteristics, this study applied the geographically weighted lasso (GWL). GWL provides local regression coefficients, which were used to account for the spatial heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks. In particular, the GWL pinpoints statistically significant regions with specific local characteristics. The applied explanatory variables involving demographic and socio-economic characteristics that were associated with higher SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the Seoul metropolitan area were as follows: young adults (19~34 years), older population, Christian population, foreign-born population, low-income households, and subway commuters. The COVID-19 case data were classified into three periods: the first period (from January 2020 to July 2021), the second period (from August to November 2020), and the third period (from December 2020 to February 2021), and the GWL was fitted for the entire period (from January 2020 to February 2021). The result showed that young adults, the Christian population, and subway commuters were the most significant local characteristics that influenced SARS-CoV-2 transmissions in the Seoul metropolitan area.

Louise Molmenti Christine ◽  
Mitra Neil ◽  
Shah Abhinit ◽  
Flynn Anne ◽  
Brown Zenobia ◽  

Background: A shortage of beds, high case volume, decreased availability of outpatient medical doctors, and limited disease knowledge resulted in the premature discharge and poor follow up of COVID-19 patients in the New York Metropolitan Area. Objective: The primary objective of this retrospective study and phone survey was to characterize the demographics and clinical outcomes (e.g., readmission rates, comorbidities, mortality, and functional status) of COVID-19 patients discharged without follow-up. The secondary objective was to assess the impact of race and comorbidities on readmission rates and the extent to which patients were escalated to another care provider. Methods: Electronic medical records were reviewed for COVID-19 patients discharged from 3 NYMA hospitals in March 2020. Follow up data regarding medical status, ability to perform activities of daily living and functional status was also obtained from patients via phone call. The Chi-square, Fishers exact test and t-tests were used to analyze the data. Results: 349 patients were included in the analysis. The hospital readmission rate was 10.6% (58.8% for pulmonary reasons) and did not differ by race. 74.3% of readmissions were <14 days after release. The post-discharge mortality rate was 2.6%. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity (43%). There was a statistically significant association between mortality and number of comorbidities (p=<0.0001). 82% of patients were contacted by phone. 66.6% of patients returned to pre-COVID baseline function in ≥1 month. As a result of information obtained on the follow up phone call, 4.2% of patients required “escalation” to another provider. Conclusion: Discharging COVID-19 patients without prearranged follow up was associated with high readmission and mortality rates. While the majority of patients recovered, prolonged weakness, lengthy recovery, and the need for additional medical intervention was noted. Further work to assess the effectiveness COVID-19 post-discharge programs is warranted.

2021 ◽  
pp. 026461962110597
Ferhat Estabeyoğlu ◽  
TN Kirk ◽  
Justin A Haegele

Participation in dance programs is associated with physical and psychosocial health among individuals with and without disabilities. However, literature centered on the dance participation experiences of youth with visual impairment remains scarce. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of youth with visual impairments in a 3-week capoeira dance program. Fourteen adolescents with visual impairments (eight boys, six girls, aged 13–18 years old) were selected for participation in this qualitative inquiry. Participants engaged in a specially designed capoeira dance program led by trained instructors and volunteers in a metropolitan area in Turkey. The primary sources of data were semi-structured participant interviews completed after the conclusion of the program. Data were analyzed using a six-step thematic approach and recurrent themes were presented as findings. The authors constructed three themes in the data: (a) “capoeira makes me feel like I’m flying”: fun and freedom learning capoeira; (b) “I’ve never had this kind of close relationship with somebody”: relationships in capoeira training; and (c) “I’m a blind dancer. I did it, right?”: learning capoeira through sound and touch. Together, these findings indicate that dance programs such as capoeira can provide an opportunity for social connection, enjoyment, and physical activity for youth with visual impairments.

Jorge E. Culebro Moreno ◽  
Benjamín Méndez Bahena ◽  
Pablo Cruz

The article analyzes how the Mexican subnational governments responded the COVID 19 outbreak during the first stage of the crisis. The response of two subnational governments whose territory is part of the largest metropolitan area in the country that has been the focus of the pandemic is presented. We ask about the coordination instruments to face COVID-19 between the federal policy and programs with the subnational governments and argue that, during the first stage of the management of the COVID-19 crisis the institutional and organizational design of the Mexican political-administrative system has had a relevant impact on the government’s response, as well in the coordination policies. The article demonstrates that in a crisis, coordination instruments do not depend on political parties but consist of a blend of weak and suitable articulation of policies of the subnational governments with the federal strategy, as well as the need to improve the instruments of collaboration between the various levels of government in the context of a healthcare system in transformation.

Paolo Montuori ◽  
Ilaria Loperto ◽  
Carmine Paolo ◽  
Davide Castrianni ◽  
Raffaele Nubi ◽  

Abstract Background Among athletes, bodybuilders are more predisposed to the use of dietary supplements (DS) and hormones (H) to increase in adaptations to physical training and performance. The purpose of the study was to identify social, psychological, and organisational factors that are associated with the use of food supplements and hormones in young bodybuilders of the metropolitan area of Naples. Methods 107 athletes, practicing bodybuilding, were consecutively recruited in 30 gyms, randomly selected in the metropolitan area of Naples. Athletes were administered an anonymous questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of 5 sections (socio-demographic, frequency and reasons for bodybuilding, knowledge, attitudes and behaviours). Descriptive statistics were performed using T-test and Chi-square statistics. A score was created for knowledge, attitudes, behaviours. Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to assess association between each score and the use of DS and H. Statistical analyses were carried out using STATA 15. Results 81.31% of the subjects reported to use DS while 35.51% H. Females are less likely to practise bodybuilding frequently than males (OR 0.18 (95% CI 0.05–0.69), p = 0.01). Subjects who have attended high school or university have a lower probability of taking DS (OR 0.17 (95% CI 0.04–0.65), p = 0.01). H users also use supplements more frequently (OR 61.21 (95% CI 3.99–939.31), p < 0.001). Those who scored higher on knowledge scores are more likely to take DS (OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.11–2.12), p < 0.001). Attitudes are correlated with the use of DS; those who scored higher were less likely to use DS (OR 0.77 (95% CI 0.30–0.98), p = 0.03). People who use DS are 30 times more likely to use H at the same time (OR 30.25 (95% CI 2.51–365.24), p < 0.001). Subjects who have a higher score for knowledge and attitudes are less likely to use H (OR 0.68 (95% CI 0.54–0.87), p < 0.001, OR 0.75 (95% CI 0.62–0.90), p < 0.001). Conclusions Prevalence of H and DS’ use, although lower than reported in the literature, is a worrying public health problem. Better knowledge can lead to an informed use. Gym instructors should be trained to provide accurate and scientifically sound information. Health professionals should combine their expertise to provide more comprehensive guidance to the exercisers.

Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1548
Van-Truc Nguyen ◽  
Nguyen Duy Dat ◽  
Thi-Dieu-Hien Vo ◽  
Duy-Hieu Nguyen ◽  
Thanh-Binh Nguyen ◽  

The present study focused on investigating the contamination and risk assessment for 16 metals in street dust from Ha Noi highway, Ho Chi Minh City. The results indicated that the concentrations of metals (mg/kg) were found, in decreasing order, to be Ti (676.3 ± 155.4) > Zn (519.2 ± 318.9) > Mn (426.6 ±113.1) > Cu (144.7 ± 61.5) > Cr (81.4 ± 22.6) > Pb (52.2 ± 22.9) > V (35.5 ± 5.6) > Ni (30.9 ± 9.5) > Co (8.3 ± 1.2) > As (8.3 ± 2.5) > Sn (7.0 ± 3.6) > B (5.7 ± 0.9) > Mo (4.1 ± 1.7) > Sb (0.8 ± 0.3) > Cd (0.6 ± 0.2) > Se (0.4 ± 0.1). The geo-accumulation index (Igeo) showed moderate contamination levels for Pb, Cd, Cu, Sn, Mo, and Zn. The enrichment factor (EF) values revealed moderate levels for Cd, Cu, Mo, and Sn but moderate–severe levels for Zn. The pollution load index of the heavy metals was moderate. The potential ecological risk (207.43) showed a high potential. Notably, 40.7% and 33.5% of the ecological risks were contributed by Zn and Mn, respectively. These findings are expected to provide useful information to decision-makers about environmental quality control strategies.

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