surface emitting laser
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2022 ◽  
Kazuyoshi Hirose ◽  
Hiroki Kamei ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-7
Davide Priante ◽  
Mingyang Zhang ◽  
Alexander R. Albrecht ◽  
Roman Bek ◽  
Michael Zimmer ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (01) ◽  
pp. C01027
Q. Chen ◽  
D. Guo ◽  
C. Zhao ◽  
R. Arteche ◽  
C. Ceballos ◽  

Abstract This paper presents the design and test results of a 14 Gbps optical transceiver ASIC (LDLA14) fabricated in a 55 nm CMOS technology for NICA Multi Purpose Detector (MPD) project. The LDLA14 is a single-channel bidirectional (1Tx + 1Rx) optical transceiver ASIC, including a Laser Driver (LD) module and a Limiting Amplifier (LA) module. It would drive the Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) of Transmitter Optical Sub-Assembly (TOSA) and receive signals from Photo Diode (PD) of Receiver Optical Sub-Assembly (ROSA), respectively. In the LDLA14, a novel structure of capacitive coupling pre-emphasis is proposed in the output driver of LD to obtain peaking effect without sacrifice the modulation current swing. A shared inductor technology and a Continuous Time Linear Equalizer (CTLE) pre-emphasis structure are added in the output buffer of LA to improve the quality of the output eye diagram. The dimension of LDLA14 is 1.5 mm × 1.3 mm, and the power consumption is 178 mW. The Peak-to-Peak Jitter (PPJ) and Root-Mean-Square Jitter (RMSJ) of the 14 Gbps optical eye diagram of LD in the Tx direction are 22.5 ps and 3.5 ps, respectively. The PPJ and RMSJ of the 14 Gbps electrical eye diagram of LA in the Rx direction are 23.1 ps and 4.7 ps, respectively. The BER tests have been conducted in Tx, Rx directions and the Tx-Rx loop condition, and the BER less than 10−12 is achieved in all tests.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Jashanpreet Singh ◽  
Karamjit Kaur

Abstract Mode division multiplexing (MDM) is very competent next generation multiplexing technique and is becoming popular among researchers these days. In this research article, an integrated passive optical network (PON) using MDM and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is proposed at 25 Gbps over 3 km multimode fiber (MMF) link distance. For MDM, diverse Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) such as LG12, LG15, LG18, LG111 and LG114 are incorporated and also for cost reduction, vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) is located in optical line terminal (OLT). Performance of diverse advanced modulations such as compressed spectrum return to zero (CSRZ), duo-binary return to zero (DRZ) and modified duo-binary return to zero (MDRZ) is evaluated and compared with non-return to zero (NRZ) in terms of Bit error rate (BER) at varied MMF link lengths. Results revealed that CSRZ performance stand out and NRZ provide worst performance.

Michael Pusterhofer ◽  
Robert Fabbro ◽  
Raffaele Coppeta ◽  
Gernot Fasching ◽  
Peter Hadley

Abstract In this work, accelerated stress tests have been performed on oxide confined vertical cavity surface emitting LASER arrays to study the formation of defects degrading the performance of the device. One such defect is an additional oxide volume forming at the oxide aperture edge, which is used for optical and electrical confinement. After producing an additional oxide volume the sample was investigated using transmission electron microscopy to estimate the oxidation speed. To produce further insights into the formation process, the temperature during such a stress test was estimated by experimentally measuring the thermal resistance, and by a thermodynamic transport simulation. Both methods produced very similar results showing a temperature increase of around 22 K for a dissipated power of 3.5 mW per emitter. However this temperature rise is very small when compared to oxidation models found in literature and should not be enough to promote the oxidation. This indicates the presence of a new enhanced oxidation mechanism, which could be connected to corrosion based failure mechanisms reported in literature.

2021 ◽  
Vol 43 ◽  
pp. 93-109
Ogomoditse Oduetse Moatlhodi ◽  
Ravi Samikannu ◽  
Nonofo M.J. Ditshego

This present work is about simulating and analysing a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) structure used in optical fibre communication systems. In this paper a VCSEL structure made of seven Quantum Wells of Indium Gallium Arsenide Phosphide (InGaAsP) emitting at 1550 nm is simulated. The device is analysed looking at the following characteristics: Direct current current and voltage (IV) characteristics, light power against electrical bias, optical gain against electrical bias, light distribution over the structure, output power and threshold current. Specification of material characteristics, ordinary physical models settings, initial VCSEL biasing, mesh declarations, declaration of laser physical models, their optical and electrical parameters were defined using Atlas syntax. Mirror ratings and quantum wells are the two main parameters that were studied and analysed to come up with structure trends. By determining important device parameters such as proper selection of the emission wavelength and choice of material; a VCSEL with an output power of 9.5 mW was simulated and compared with other structures.

2021 ◽  
Wen-Jie Liu ◽  
Qingxia Zhuo ◽  
Kun-Hua Wen ◽  
Qiushun Zou ◽  
Xiao-Long Hu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2052 (1) ◽  
pp. 012051
K O Voropaev ◽  
V A Grebennikov ◽  
A V Zhelannov ◽  
A Yu Prokhorov ◽  
B I Seleznev

Abstract A study of the technology of selective oxidation of the buried AlGaAs layer used as an aperture layer in the structure of a Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser has been carried out. Oxidation process was made as thermal oxidating in a humidified nitrogen atmosphere. The conditions of the oxidation process are described, images of the oxidation results and the dependence of the growth rate of the oxidized layer on the process temperature are presented. A technology for the formation of an oxide current aperture has been developed for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with a generation wavelength of 850 nm, which makes it possible to accurately control the size and shape of the resulting aperture.

Crystals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1237
Kuo-Bin Hong ◽  
Wei-Ta Huang ◽  
Hsin-Chan Chung ◽  
Guan-Hao Chang ◽  
Dong Yang ◽  

In this paper, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of a high-power, high-speed flip-chip vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) for light detection and ranging (LiDAR) systems. The optoelectronic characteristics and modulation speeds of vertical and flip-chip VCSELs were investigated numerically and experimentally. The thermal transport properties of the two samples were also numerically investigated. The measured maximum output power, slope efficiency (SE) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a fabricated flip-chip VCSEL array operated at room-temperature were 6.2 W, 1.11 W/A and 46.1%, respectively. The measured L-I-V curves demonstrated that the flip-chip architecture offers better thermal characteristics than the conventional vertical structure, especially for high-temperature operation. The rise time of the flip-chip VCSEL array was 218.5 ps, and the architecture of the flip-chip VCSEL with tunnel junction was chosen to accommodate the application of long-range LiDAR. The calculated PCE of such a flip-chip VCSEL was further improved from 51% to 57.8%. The device design concept and forecasting laser characteristics are suitable for LiDAR systems.

Nanophotonics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Elham Heidari ◽  
Moustafa Ahmed ◽  
Hamed Dalir ◽  
Ahmed Bakry ◽  
Ahmed Alshahrie ◽  

Abstract To fulfill the demands of high-speed photonic applications, researchers, and engineers have been working to improve the modulation bandwidth (MBW) of semiconductor lasers. We extend our prior work on modeling a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with multiple transverse-coupled-cavities (MTCCs) to evaluate the feasibility of boosting MBW beyond 100 GHz in this study. Because of the strong coupling of slow-light feedback from nearby lateral transverse coupled cavities (TCCs) into the VCSEL cavity, the laser has a high modulation performance. The intensity modulation response of the VCSEL design using one, two, four, and six TCCs is compared. Due to the optical-feedback (OFB) from short TCCs, which achieves 3 dB MBW reaching 170 GHz, photon–photon-resonance (PPR) is projected to occur at ultra-high frequencies beyond 145 GHz. In terms of the Fourier spectrum of the relative intensity noise (RIN), we characterize the noise features of the MTCC-VCSEL in the ultra-high bandwidth domain.

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