stress tests
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Ákos Móra ◽  
Zsolt Komka ◽  
József Végh ◽  
István Farkas ◽  
Gyöngyi Szilágyi Kocsisné ◽  

Background: The purpose of our study was to compare the physiological effects of extreme physical and psychological stress tests in male soccer players, since these two types of stress apply to athletes with high performance requirements. Methods: A total of 63 healthy male soccer players participated in this study, all of whom underwent both of the tests. A physical stress test was carried out in an exercise physiology laboratory, where subjects completed an incremental treadmill running test to full exhaustion, and a psychological test was performed in a military tactical room, where subjects met a street offence situation. Heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded directly before, immediately after, and 30 min after the stress tests. Results: The majority of HRV indices changed significantly in both stress protocols. Inverse, significant changes (positive for the physical test, negative for the psychological test, p < 0.001) were found when comparing the alterations of HRV indices between the tests. Significant differences were found in the changes in systolic (p = 0.003) and diastolic (p < 0.001) BP between the test protocols, and also between the baseline and post-test measurements (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Both HRV and BP are sensitive physiological parameters to measure the impact of extreme physical and/or psychological stress


Central bank’s macroprudential supervisory activities have to fulfill three distinct tasks: (i) assessing the banking system’s vulnerability to exogenous adverse turbulence, (ii) evaluating the risk of systemic crisis originating from idiosyncratic shocks, and (iii) measuring financial market’s sensitivity to policy stimuli. Given that macroprudential stress tests are the centerpiece of this policy approach, it is important to establish whether they are up to the task. We study how the 2011–2018 European Banking Authority stress tests affected market risk perception and show that they provided agents with valuable information on the policy stances and the vulnerabilities of the banking system, carrying out the above tasks successfully, especially the second and third tasks.

2022 ◽  
pp. 239-243
Amit Alam, MD ◽  
Ali Seyar Rahyab, MD ◽  
Gregory J. Hughes, PharmD, BCPS, BCGP

2022 ◽  
Vol 334 ◽  
pp. 04015
Daria Vladikova ◽  
Blagoy Burdin ◽  
Asrar Sheikh ◽  
Paolo Piccardo ◽  
Milena Krapchanska ◽  

This work aims at development of Accelerated Stress Tests for SOFC via artificial aging of the fuel electrode applying chemical and electrochemical (hydrogen starvation) redox cycling. In principle the degradation processes follows that of calendar aging (Ni coarsening and migration), but in addition it can bring to irreversible damages caused by the development of cracks at the interface anode/electrolyte due to the expansion/shrinkage of the Ni network. The challenge is to introduce conditions which will prevent the formation of cracks which can be done by partial oxidation. The advantage of the proposed methodology is that a mild level of oxidation can be regulated by direct impedance monitoring of the Ni network resistance changes during oxidation/reduction. Once the redox cycling conditions are fixed on bare anode and checked on anode/electrolyte sample for eventual cracks, the procedure can be introduced for AST in full cell configuration. The developed methodology is evaluated by comparative impedance analysis of artificially aged and calendar aged button cells. The results for 20 redox cycles which can be performed for 24 hours are comparable with those obtained for about 1600 hours operation in standard conditions which ensures more than 50 times acceleration.

2022 ◽  
Vol 334 ◽  
pp. 06010
Elena Colombo ◽  
Andrea Baricci ◽  
Andrea Casalegno

This work aims at studying MEA’s ageing under single operational “mode” accelerated stress tests (AST), that were specifically designed to replicate under hydrogen/air feeding the main stressors of realistic operations in the automotive sector. A methodology for developing AST is here presented and preliminary results about the activity included. In particular, low power and high power functioning have been mimicked in a Zero-Gradient hardware, which allows a reliable materials comparison. Quantities, measurable in-situ and operando, have been tracked during ageing, like cell power, polarization curves, Pt active area, oxygen mass transport resistance, Electrochemical Impedance Spectra. The final objective is to clarify the underlying ageing mechanisms and assess the contribution of each specific operation to the MEA lifetime, focusing in particular on the cathode catalyst layer durability. Moreover, the rate of voltage loss for the new ASTs has been successfully correlated to the degradation observed under a complete driving cycle protocol.

2022 ◽  
Vol 334 ◽  
pp. 04005
Eva Sousa ◽  
Sofia Delgado ◽  
Tiago Lagarteira ◽  
Adélio Mendes

Hybrid supports have been proposed as a new alternative to increase the stability of ORR catalysts used in PEMFCs for automotive applications since they are known to be stable under harsh conditions. In this work, Pt nanoparticles were deposited over C/SiO2, via single-step polyol method, to take advantage of the corrosion-resistance properties of silica nanoparticles. In fact, the synthesis parameters, namely, pH, temperature, and glycol concentration had a remarkable impact on the Pt size-distribution, crystallinity, and dispersion over the C/SiO2 supports. A maximum ORR activity and stability was obtained for Pt/C/SiO2 catalysts produced at 1:6 W/EG (v/v). The addition of SiO2 nanoparticles to the carbon structure showed their ability to effectively inhibit support corrosion and Pt nanoparticles detachment and/or growth, with the pH adjustments being critical for obtaining highly stable C/SiO2 supports. Pt/C/SiO2 synthetized under acidic conditions revealed the highest stability when subjected to accelerated stress tests (ASTs), losing only 30 % of the initial electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) of Pt after 4 000 cycles from 0.6 to 1 V (vs RHE), whereas the commercial Pt/C revealed > 50 % of ECSA loss.

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S95-S96
Rebecca F. Hamm ◽  
Ketty shkolnik ◽  
Nina Keren ◽  
Yael Zahar ◽  
Barak Laish ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 12087
Carlos Azevedo ◽  
António Matos ◽  
Pedro U. Lima ◽  
Jose Avendaño

Currently, there is a lack of developer-friendly software tools to formally address multi-robot coordination problems and obtain robust, efficient, and predictable strategies. This paper introduces a software toolbox that encapsulates, in one single package, modeling, planning, and execution algorithms. It implements a state-of-the-art approach to representing multi-robot systems: generalized Petri nets with rewards (GSPNRs). GSPNRs enable capturing multiple robots, decision states, action execution states and respective outcomes, action duration uncertainty, and team-level objectives. We introduce a novel algorithm that simplifies the model design process as it generates a GSPNR from a topological map. We also introduce a novel execution algorithm that coordinates the multi-robot system according to a given policy. This is achieved without compromising the model compactness introduced by representing robots as indistinguishable tokens. We characterize the computational performance of the toolbox with a series of stress tests. These tests reveal a lightweight implementation that requires low CPU and memory usage. We showcase the toolbox functionalities by solving a multi-robot inspection application, where we extend GSPNRs to enable the representation of heterogeneous systems and system resources such as battery levels and counters.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Naazneen Khan ◽  
Yelena Alimova ◽  
Sophie J. Clark ◽  
Hemendra Vekaria ◽  
Adeline E. Walsh ◽  

Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive age-dependent disorder whose risk is affected by genetic factors. Better models for investigating early effects of risk factors such as apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype are needed. Objective: To determine whether APOE genotype produces neuropathologies in an AD-susceptible neural system, we compared effects of human APOE ɛ3 (E3) and APOE ɛ4 (E4) alleles on the mouse olfactory epithelium. Methods: RNA-Seq using the STAR aligner and DESeq2, immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3 and phosphorylated histone H3, glucose uptake after oral gavage of 2-[1,2-3H (N)]-deoxy-D-glucose, and Seahorse Mito Stress tests on dissociated olfactory mucosal cells. Results: E3 and E4 olfactory mucosae show 121 differentially abundant mRNAs at age 6 months. These do not indicate differences in cell type proportions, but effects on 17 odorant receptor mRNAs suggest small differences in tissue development. Ten oxidoreductases mRNAs important for cellular metabolism and mitochondria are less abundant in E4 olfactory mucosae but this does not translate into differences in cellular respiration. E4 olfactory mucosae show lower glucose uptake, characteristic of AD susceptibility and consistent with greater expression of the glucose-sensitive gene, Asns. Olfactory sensory neuron apoptosis is unaffected at age 6 months but is greater in E4 mice at 10 months. Conclusion: Effects of human APOE alleles on mouse olfactory epithelium phenotype are apparent in early adulthood, and neuronal loss begins to increase by middle age (10 months). The olfactory epithelium is an appropriate model for the ability of human APOE alleles to modulate age-dependent effects associated with the progression of AD.

2021 ◽  
Javier Franquet ◽  
A. N. Martin ◽  
Viraj Telaj ◽  
Hamad Khairy ◽  
Ahmed Soliman ◽  

Abstract The objective of this work was to quantify the in-situ stress contrast between the reservoir and the surrounding dense carbonate layers above and below for accurate hydraulic fracturing propagation modelling and precise fracture containment prediction. The goal was to design an optimum reservoir stimulation treatment in a Lower Cretaceous tight oil reservoir without fracturing the lower dense zone and communicating the high-permeability reservoir below. This case study came from Abu Dhabi onshore where a vertical pilot hole was drilled to perform in-situ stress testing to design a horizontal multi-stage hydraulic fractured well in a 35-ft thick reservoir. The in-situ stress tests were obtained using a wireline straddle packer microfrac tool able to measure formation breakdown and fracture closure pressures in multiple zones across the dense and reservoir layers. Standard dual-packer micro-injection tests were conducted to measure stresses in reservoir layers while single-packer sleeve-frac tests were done to breakdown high-stress dense layers. The pressure versus time was monitored in real-time to make prompt geoscience decisions during the acquisition of the data. The formation breakdown and fracture closure pressures were utilized to calibrated minimum and maximum lateral tectonic strains for accurate in-situ stress profile. Then, the calibrated stress profile was used to simulate fracture propagation and containment for the subsequent reservoir stimulation design. A total 17 microfrac stress tests were completed in 13 testing points across the vertical pilot, 12 with dual-packer injection and 5 with single-packer sleeve fracturing inflation. The fracture closure results showed stronger stress contrast towards the lower dense zone (900 psi) in comparison with the upper dense zone (600 psi). These measurements enabled the oilfield operating company to place the lateral well in a lower section of the tight reservoir without the risk of fracturing out-of-zone. The novelty of this in-situ stress testing consisted of single packer inflations (sleeve frac) in an 8½-in hole in order to achieve higher differential pressures (7,000 psi) to breakdown the dense zones. The single packer breakdown permitted fracture propagation and reliable closure measurements with dual-packer injection at a lower differential reopening pressure (4,500 psi). Microfracturing the tight formation prior to fluid sampling produced clean oil samples with 80% reduction of pump out time in comparison to conventional straddle packer sampling operations. This was a breakthrough operational outcome in sampling this reservoir.

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