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Islam T. Almalkawi ◽  
Ashraf H. Al-Bqerat ◽  
Awni Itradat ◽  
Jamal N. Al-Karaki

<p>Amplifiers are widely used in signal receiving circuits, such as antennas, medical imaging, wireless devices and many other applications. However, one of the most challenging problems when building an amplifier circuit is the noise, since it affects the quality of the intended received signal in most wireless applications. Therefore, a preamplifier is usually placed close to the main sensor to reduce the effects of interferences and to amplify the received signal without degrading the signal-to-noise ratio. Although different designs have been optimized and tested in the literature, all of them are using larger than 100 nm technologies which have led to a modest performance in terms of equivalent noise charge (ENC), gain, power consumption, and response time. In contrast, we consider in this paper a new amplifier design technology trend and move towards sub 100 nm to enhance its performance. In this work, we use a pre-well-known design of a preamplifier circuit and rebuild it using 45 nm CMOS technology, which is made for the first time in such circuits. Performance evaluation shows that our proposed scaling technology, compared with other scaling technology, extremely reduces ENC of the circuit by more than 95%. The noise spectral density and time resolution are also reduced by 25% and 95% respectively. In addition, power consumption is decreased due to the reduced channel length by 90%. As a result, all of those enhancements make our proposed circuit more suitable for medical and wireless devices.</p>

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-13
David Thompson ◽  
Haibo Wang

This work presents a methodology to monitor the power signature of IoT devices for detecting operation abnormality. It does not require bulky measurement equipment thanks to the proposed power signature generation circuit which can be integrated into LDO voltage regulators. The proposed circuit is implemented using a 130 nm CMOS technology and simulated with power trace measured from a wireless sensor. It shows the generated power signature accurately reflects the power consumption and can be used to distinguish different operation conditions, such as wireless transmission levels, data sampling rates and microcontroller UART communications.

Prakash Sharma

Abstract: This paper presents a relative study among two Ring oscillators architecture (CMOS, NMOS) and current-starved Voltage-controlled oscillator (CS-VCO) on the basis of different parameters like power dissipation ,phase noise etc. All the design has been done in 45- nm CMOS technology node and 2.3 GHz Centre frequency have been taken for the comparison because of their applications in AV Devices and Radio control. An inherent idea of the given performance parameters has been realize by thecomparative study. The comparative data shows that NMOS based Ring oscillator is good option in terms of the phase noise performance. In this study NMOS Ring Oscillator have attain a phase noise -97.94 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset frequency from 2.3 GHz center frequency. The related data also shows that CMOS Ring oscillator is the best option in terms of power consumption. In this work CMOS Ring oscillator evacuatea power of 1.73 mW which is quite low. Keywords: Voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), phase noise, power consumption, Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), Current Starved Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (CS- VCO), Pull up network (PUN), Pull down network (PDN)

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Taikyu Kim ◽  
Cheol Hee Choi ◽  
Pilgyu Byeon ◽  
Miso Lee ◽  
Aeran Song ◽  

AbstractAchieving high-performance p-type semiconductors has been considered one of the most challenging tasks for three-dimensional vertically integrated nanoelectronics. Although many candidates have been presented to date, the facile and scalable realization of high-mobility p-channel field-effect transistors (FETs) is still elusive. Here, we report a high-performance p-channel tellurium (Te) FET fabricated through physical vapor deposition at room temperature. A growth route involving Te deposition by sputtering, oxidation and subsequent reduction to an elemental Te film through alumina encapsulation allows the resulting p-channel FET to exhibit a high field-effect mobility of 30.9 cm2 V−1 s−1 and an ION/OFF ratio of 5.8 × 105 with 4-inch wafer-scale integrity on a SiO2/Si substrate. Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) inverters using In-Ga-Zn-O and 4-nm-thick Te channels show a remarkably high gain of ~75.2 and great noise margins at small supply voltage of 3 V. We believe that this low-cost and high-performance Te layer can pave the way for future CMOS technology enabling monolithic three-dimensional integration.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 554
Ying He ◽  
Sung Min Park

This paper presents a nine-bit integrator-based time-to-digital converter (I-TDC) realized in a 180 nm CMOS technology for the applications of indoor home-monitoring light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors. The proposed I-TDC exploits a clock-free configuration so as to discard clock-related dynamic power consumption and some notorious issues such as skew, glitch, and synchronization. It consists of a one-dimensional (1D) flash TDC to generate coarse-control codes and an integrator with a peak detection and hold (PDH) circuit to produce fine-control codes. A thermometer-to-binary converter is added to the 1D flash TDC, yielding four-bit coarse codes so that the measured detection range can be represented by nine-bit digital codes in total. Test chips of the proposed I-TDC demonstrate the measured results of the 53 dB dynamic range, i.e., the maximum detection range of 33.6 m and the minimum range of 7.5 cm. The chip core occupies the area of 0.14 × 1.4 mm2, with the power dissipation of 1.6 mW from a single 1.2-V supply.

2022 ◽  
bchir bchir ◽  
Mounira Bchir ◽  
Imen Aloui ◽  
Nejib Hassen

Abstract A regulated cascode current mirror (RGC) and its improved version with bulk driven quasi floating gate technique (BD-QFG) are presented in this paper. The proposed BD-QFG RGC current mirror (CM) is compared with the conventional (GD) RGC CM to show the performance improvement. The conventional and unconventional CM are implemented in Candace Virtuoso using 90 nm CMOS technology. For input current (Iin) varied from 0 to 200 μA and for 0.8 V supply voltage, the simulation results present that the proposed BD-QFG RGC CM has less variation in current transfer error (0.2%) as compared to the GD RGC CM (12%). The output voltage requirement for 200 µA input current is respectively 0.7 V and 0.17 V for the GD RGC CM and the BD-QFG RGC CM. The power consumption of the proposed circuit is 22.71 μW which is 0.15 μW higher than the GD RGC (22.56 μW). The total harmonic distortion (THD) of the proposed circuit is 0.4% which is 1.1% less than the conventional circuit (1.5%). All these improvements in the proposed BD-QFG RGC CM are attained at a cost of 0.05 GHz reduction in frequency (2.31 GHz). The minimum supply voltage of BD-QFG RGC CM and GD RGC CM is 0.4 V and

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 193
Mohammad Arif Sobhan Bhuiyan ◽  
Md. Rownak Hossain ◽  
Khairun Nisa’ Minhad ◽  
Fahmida Haque ◽  
Mohammad Shahriar Khan Hemel ◽  

Systems-on-Chip’s (SoC) design complexity demands a high-performance linear regulator architecture to maintain a stable operation for the efficient power management of today’s devices. Over the decades, the low-dropout (LDO) voltage regulator design has gained attention due to its design scalability with better performance in various application domains. Industry professionals as well as academia have put forward their innovations such as event-driven explicit time-coding, exponential-ratio array, switched RC bandgap reference circuit, etc., to make a trade-off between several performance parameters such as die area, ripple rejection, supply voltage range, and current efficiency. However, current LDO architectures in micro and nanometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology face some challenges, such as short channel effects, gate leakage, fabrication difficulty, and sensitivity to process variations at nanoscale. This review presents the LDO architectures, optimization techniques, and performance comparisons in different LDO design domains such as digital, analog, and hybrid. In this review, various state-of-the-art circuit topologies, deployed for the betterment of LDO performance and focusing on the specific parameter up-gradation to the overall improvement of the functionality, are framed, which will serve as a comparative study and reference for researchers.

Erika Covi ◽  
Halid Mulaosmanovic ◽  
Benjamin Max ◽  
Stefan Slesazeck ◽  
Thomas Mikolajick

Abstract The shift towards a distributed computing paradigm, where multiple systems acquire and elaborate data in real-time, leads to challenges that must be met. In particular, it is becoming increasingly essential to compute on the edge of the network, close to the sensor collecting data. The requirements of a system operating on the edge are very tight: power efficiency, low area occupation, fast response times, and on-line learning. Brain-inspired architectures such as Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) use artificial neurons and synapses that simultaneously perform low-latency computation and internal-state storage with very low power consumption. Still, they mainly rely on standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies, making SNNs unfit to meet the aforementioned constraints. Recently, emerging technologies such as memristive devices have been investigated to flank CMOS technology and overcome edge computing systems' power and memory constraints. In this review, we will focus on ferroelectric technology. Thanks to its CMOS-compatible fabrication process and extreme energy efficiency, ferroelectric devices are rapidly affirming themselves as one of the most promising technology for neuromorphic computing. Therefore, we will discuss their role in emulating neural and synaptic behaviors in an area and power-efficient way.

Takashi Yoda ◽  
Noboru Ishihara ◽  
Yuta Oshima ◽  
Motoki Ando ◽  
Kohei Kashiwagi ◽  

Abstract Circuits for CMOS two-dimensional (2-D) array data transfer are indispensable for applications such as space and nuclear fields. Issues include to be operated with higher speed, lower power, fewer size penalty and radiation hardness. To meet these requirements, two kinds of CMOS 2-D array data transfer circuits, such as a shift register type and a memory access type, are proposed and fabricated by the standard 0.18-µm CMOS process technology. In the both types, 16 µm pitch, 8×124 array data transfer operations were realized with data rate of more than 1 Gb/s. Furthermore, we conducted 60Co γ-ray irradiation experiments on those circuits. The current consumption ratio of the shift register type to the memory access type ranges from 150 to 200% as the dosage increases. The result indicate that the memory access type has better radiation hardness at 1 Gb/s than that of the shift register type.

Hiroki Sonoda ◽  
Takuji Miki ◽  
Makoto Nagata

Abstract Internet-of-things (IoT) devices are compact and low power. A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) based analog-to-digital converter (ADC) benefits from scaled CMOS transistors in representing analog signals in the time domain and therefore meets those demands. However, we find the potential drawback of VCO-based ADCs for the electromagnetic susceptibility (EMS) to radio-frequency (RF) disturbances that are essentially present in IoT environment. It is exhibited that the single and even differential designs of VCO-based ADC suffer from the EMS by RF disturbance, which behaves differently from the known common-mode noise rejection. A 28-nm CMOS 10-bit VCO-ADC prototype exhibit the sensitivity against RF signals in the widely used 2.4 GHz frequency band.

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