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Nils Reinhardt ◽  
Axel Gerdes ◽  
Aratz Beranoaguirre ◽  
Max Frenzel ◽  
Lawrence D. Meinert ◽  

AbstractHere, we present in situ U–Pb laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) ages of andradite-grossular garnet from four magmatic-hydrothermal polymetallic skarn prospects in the Schwarzenberg District, Erzgebirge (Germany), located in the internal zone of the Variscan Orogenic Belt. Within the geochronological framework of igneous rocks and hydrothermal mineralization in the Erzgebirge, the obtained garnet ages define three distinct episodes of Variscan skarn formation: (I) early late-collisional mineralization (338–331 Ma) recording the onset of magmatic-hydrothermal fluid flow shortly after the peak metamorphic event, (II) late-collisional mineralization (~ 327–310 Ma) related to the emplacement of large peraluminous granites following large-scale extension caused by orogenic collapse and (III) post-collisional mineralization (~ 310–295 Ma) contemporaneous with widespread volcanism associated with Permian crustal reorganization. Our results demonstrate that the formation of skarns in the Schwarzenberg District occurred episodically in all sub-stages of the Variscan orogenic cycle over a time range of at least 40 Ma. This observation is consistent with the age range of available geochronological data related to magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits from other internal zones of the Variscan Orogenic Belt in central and western Europe. In analogy to the time–space relationship of major porphyry-Cu belts in South America, the congruent magmatic-hydrothermal evolution in the internal zones and the distinctly later (by ~ 30 Ma) occurrence of magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits in the external zones of the Variscan Orogenic Belt may be interpreted as a function of their tectonic position relative to the Variscan collisional front.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 280
Chil-Chyuan Kuo ◽  
Jing-Yan Xu ◽  
Yi-Jun Zhu ◽  
Chong-Hao Lee

Metal additive manufacturing techniques are frequently applied to the manufacturing of injection molds with a conformal cooling channel (CCC) in order to shorten the cooling time in the injection molding process. Reducing the cooling time in the cooling stage is essential to reducing the energy consumption in mass production. However, the distinct disadvantages include higher manufacturing costs and longer processing time in the fabrication of injection mold with CCC. Rapid tooling technology (RTT) is a widely utilized technology to shorten mold development time in the mold industry. In principle, the cooling time of injection molded products is affected by both injection mold material and coolant medium. However, little work has been carried out to investigate the effects of different mold materials and coolant media on the cooling performance of epoxy-based injection molds quantitatively. In this study, the effects of four different coolant media on the cooling performance of ten sets of injection molds fabricated with different mixtures were investigated experimentally. It was found that cooling water with ultrafine bubble is the best cooling medium based on the cooling efficiency of the injection molded parts (since the cooling efficiency is increased further by about 12.4% compared to the conventional cooling water). Mold material has a greater influence on the cooling efficiency than the cooling medium, since cooling time range of different mold materials is 99 s while the cooling time range for different cooling media is 92 s. Based on the total production cost of injection mold and cooling efficiency, the epoxy resin filled with 41 vol.% aluminum powder is the optimal formula for making an injection mold since saving in the total production cost about 24% is obtained compared to injection mold made with commercially available materials.

2022 ◽  
Vol 51 (2) ◽  
pp. 195-226
Panqiang Niu ◽  
Anang Masduki ◽  
Xigen Li ◽  
Filosa Gita Sukmono

This paper constructs the model of network economics to study the effect of different levels of network convergence on the digital culture industry. Then uses regression models and mediating effect models to test the effect mechanism of network convergence on the digital culture industry of China.  This paper used panel data to conduct an empirical study. The data in this paper were quarterly. The time range was from the first quarter of 2009 to the third quarter of 2013 for 19 quarters.The three data types in econometrics are time series data, cross-sectional data, and panel data.The main conclusions are as follows. Network convergence brings positive policy effects and adverse capital effects. The impact of network convergence on firm performance of the digital culture industry is not statistically significant, and this effect also has no indirect effects on the test of mediating effect. However, network convergence indirectly leads to the reduction of operating costs of the digital culture industry. The indirect effect is brought by the chain mediating effect of policy effect and capital effect. The study could provide a reference for other countries and regions. Meanwhile, it can be used to analyze the impact of different media convergence on digital industries.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 107
Myriam Lamrayah ◽  
Capucine Phelip ◽  
Céline Coiffier ◽  
Céline Lacroix ◽  
Thibaut Willemin ◽  

Micelles from amphiphilic polylactide-block-poly(N-acryloxysuccinimide-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PLA-b-P(NAS-co-NVP)) block copolymers of 105 nm in size were characterized and evaluated in a vaccine context. The micelles were non-toxic in vitro (both in dendritic cells and HeLa cells). In vitro fluorescence experiments combined with in vivo fluorescence tomography imaging, through micelle loading with the DiR near infrared probe, suggested an efficient uptake of the micelles by the immune cells. The antigenic protein p24 of the HIV-1 was successfully coupled on the micelles using the reactive N-succinimidyl ester groups on the micelle corona, as shown by SDS-PAGE analyses. The antigenicity of the coupled antigen was preserved and even improved, as assessed by the immuno-enzymatic (ELISA) test. Then, the performances of the micelles in immunization were investigated and compared to different p24-coated PLA nanoparticles, as well as Alum and MF59 gold standards, following a standardized HIV-1 immunization protocol in mice. The humoral response intensity (IgG titers) was substantially similar between the PLA micelles and all other adjuvants over an extended time range (one year). More interestingly, this immune response induced by PLA micelles was qualitatively higher than the gold standards and PLA nanoparticles analogs, expressed through an increasing avidity index over time (>60% at day 365). Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential of such small-sized micellar systems for vaccine delivery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 951 (1) ◽  
pp. 012101
I S Nasution ◽  
R Agustina ◽  
M A Fauza

Abstract Hybrid infrared-solar dryer has a potential for drying fruits, vegetables, and grains such as paddy. This study aims to assess the performance of hybrid infrared-solar dryer on paddy in different of deep layer. Three different infrared heaters were used with a power of 25 W, 50 W, and 100 W. The hybrid infrared-solar dryer equipped with sensors placed in an open space so that sunlight can reach the drying chamber. The paddy samples were dried in different of deep layer (2 cm, 4 cm, 6 cm) until it reaches a moisture content of 14%. The input sensors in the drying chamber such as temperature, humidity, and moisture content were recorded using microcontroller and stored in Microsoft Excel® using the Parallax Data Acquisition tool. The algorithm was developed in order to control the heater from the input of temperature and humidity sensors by adjusting turn on/off relay. The study confirmed that the infrared heating power of 100 W is recommended for paddy drying if the ambient temperature is unfavourable (temperature less than 30°C). In general, the hybrid infrared-solar dryer with a power of 25 W-100 W has a potential to dry paddy quickly at a thickness of 2 cm-6 cm with a time range of 90-150 minutes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 43 (4) ◽  
pp. 477-502
Tomasz Kalisz

This paper discusses the evolution of the position and role of the prosecutor in the course ofshaping the institution of penitentiary supervision. Penitentiary supervision is the process of examining (controlling) the activities of the bodies established to carry out isolation measures, combined with the possibility of assistance, influence and modification of this activity. In the past, the scope of the prosecutor’s influence on the functioning of the broadly understood criminal justice system was much greater. The evolution from prosecutor supervision, through prosecutor–court supervision, to the current model of only judicial supervision, is an interesting example of a clash between two competing participants in criminal proceedings. Judicial penitentiary supervision has turned out to be more effective, and, above all, it is a guarantee of lawful and humane execution of imprisonment and pre-trial detention. The prosecutor’s supervision, especially in the period after the adoption of the 1969 Executive Penal Code, did not enjoy the same prestige as that of a judge. Prosecutors are not an independent body like judges and it was difficult to consider their decisions fully impartial. The study is a historical analysis. The time range is determined by two important normative regulations. The beginning is the decree of the Chief of State of 8 February 1919 on temporary prison regulations, where the term penitentiary supervision (performed only by a prosecutor) appears for the first time in Polish legislation. The closing date is the adoption on 6 June 1997 of the Executive Penal Code, introducing only judicial penitentiary supervision and removing it from the scope of prosecutors’ powers.

2021 ◽  
Zhao-ya Fan ◽  
Yuan-lin Mou ◽  
Qian Hu ◽  
Ruo-yun Yin ◽  
Lei Tang ◽  

Abstract Background: Common thyroid diseases are hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis, thyroid tumor and so on. Baidu is currently the most widely used online search tool in China, has developed an internet search trends collection and analysis tool called the Baidu Index. The aim of the present study was to understand the trend and characteristics of public’s online attention to thyroid diseases, and to explore the value of Baidu Index in monitoring online retrieval behavior of thyroid related information.Methods: Taking the period from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2019 as the time range into consideration, we used the big data analysis tool of Baidu Index and took “thyroid nodules”, “thyroid cancer”, “thyroiditis” “hyperthyroidism” and “hypothyroidism” as the keywords, the data of “search index” and “media index” were recorded on a weekly basis, and all information were aggregated into quarterly and annual to generate the final data which was carried out for secondary analysis. Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the search index of keywords and the year. One-way Analysis of Variance was used to analyze the differences between search index and media index.Results: Among the five keywords, thyroid nodule search index had the highest growth rate (640%), followed by thyroid cancer (298%). The media’s attention to thyroid diseases had been declining year by year. Unlike the public’s attention, the media index of hyperthyroidism was significantly higher than other keywords.Conclusion: Over the past nine years, the public's attention to thyroid related diseases has been increasing gradually. Baidu Index is an effective tool to track the health information query behavior of Chinese internet users, which can provide a cost-effective supplement to traditional monitoring system.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 79
Jiaxin Wu ◽  
Fuchen Guo ◽  
Ke Li ◽  
Linxi Zhang

The sliding dynamics along two asymmetric/symmetric axial chains of ring chains linked by a linear chainis investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A novel sub-diffusion behavior is observed for ring chains sliding along eithera fixed rod-like chain or fluctuating axial chain on asymmetric/symmetric axial chainsat the intermediate time range due to their strongly interplay between two ring chains. However, two ring chains slide in the normal diffusion at along time range because their sliding dynamics can be regarded as an overall motion of two ring chains. For ring chains sliding on two symmetric/asymmetricaxial chains, the diffusion coefficient D of ring chains relies on the bending energy of axial chains (Kb) as well as the distance of two axial chains (d). There exists a maximum diffusion coefficient Dmax at d = d* in which ring chains slide at the fastest velocity due to the maximum conformational entropy for the linking chain between two ring chainsat d = d*. Ring chain slide on fixed rod-like axial chainsfaster in the symmetric axial chain case than that in the asymmetric axial chain case. However, ring chains slide on fluctuatingaxial chainsslower in the symmetric axial chain case than that in the asymmetric axial chain case. This investigation can provide insights into the effects of the linked chain conformation on the sliding dynamics of ring chains in a slide-ring gel.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 19-27
Susana Lin ◽  
Genrawan Hoendarto

Financial management is one of the important things in the process of achieving the financial goals of a person or an organization. Everyone has their own way to manages finances, this is dependent on the character and they goals. Financial management can be done conventionally, for example by manual method which is commonly done by write the expenses, income, and savings in a notebook. However, if the note must contain details of the transactions carried out, it can be considered less efficient. The use of Optical Character Recognition will be able to answer this problem, by taking a picture of the transaction, all transaction details will be recorded on the smartphone, and the user can validate the results obtained and save the record on the smartphone user. Users can also immediately see the total transactions made according to the selected time range without having to calculate each transaction made manually. The application will be designed using the react native framework which allows it to run on various platforms.

Ji Yuan

Aiming at the problem that the number of data bytes in the traditional automatic update technology of GIS platform is small, a method of automatic update of GIS platform graph model based on machine learning is studied. Firstly, the data of the GIS platform model is convolved by the iso-linear feature detection operator in the automatic updating technology of the GIS platform model, and the calculated data of the GIS platform model is expressed as spatial data. A reasonable updating criterion is established, the spatial relationship of GSI data is reconstructed by the measure of updating criterion, the data vector of GIS platform model updated within the updating time range is calculated, and the regional data elements in the space are constantly changed to complete the data updating of GIS platform model. The experimental results show that compared with the automatic updating method of GIS platform model, the proposed method can update more data bytes with the same number of data bytes.

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