integrated control
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2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (1) ◽  
pp. 69-81
Geunnam Park ◽  
David M. Bevly ◽  
Seok-Cheol Kee

Mengdi Kong ◽  
Federico Felici ◽  
Olivier Sauter ◽  
Cristian Galperti ◽  
Trang Vu ◽  

Abstract This paper presents recent progress on the studies of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) on TCV, concerning the new physics learned and how this physics contributes to a better real-time (RT) control of NTMs. A simple technique that adds a small (sinusoidal) sweeping to the target electron cyclotron (EC) beam deposition location has proven effective both for the stabilization and prevention of 2⁄1 NTMs. This relaxes the strict requirement on beam-mode alignment for NTM control, which is difficult to ensure in RT. In terms of the EC power for NTM stabilization, a control scheme making use of RT island width measurements has been tested on TCV. NTM seeding through sawtooth (ST) crashes or unstable current density profiles (triggerless NTMs) has been studied in detail. A new NTM prevention strategy utilizing only transient EC beams near the relevant rational surface has been developed and proven effective for preventing ST-seeded NTMs. With a comprehensive modified Rutherford equation (co-MRE) that considers the classical stability both at zero and finite island width, the prevention of triggerless NTMs with EC beams has been simulated for the first time. The prevention effects are found to result from the local effects of the EC beams (as opposed to global current profile changes), as observed in a group of TCV experiments scanning the deposition location of the preemptive EC beam. The co-MRE has also proven able to reproduce well the island width evolution in distinct plasma scenarios on TCV, ASDEX Upgrade and MAST, with very similar constant coefficients. The co-MRE has the potential of being applied in RT to provide valuable information such as the EC power required for NTM control with RT-adapted coefficients, contributing to both NTM control and integrated control with a limited set of actuators.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Norbert Becker ◽  
Sophie Min Langentepe-Kong ◽  
Artin Tokatlian Rodriguez ◽  
Thin Thin Oo ◽  
Dirk Reichle ◽  

Abstract Background The invasive species Aedes albopictus, commonly known as the Asian tiger mosquito, has undergone extreme range expansion by means of steady introductions as blind passengers in vehicles traveling from the Mediterranean to south-west Germany. The more than 25 established populations in the State of Baden-Württemberg, Palatine and Hesse (south-west Germany) have become a major nuisance and public health threat. Aedes albopictus deserves special attention as a vector of arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. In Germany, Ae. albopictus control programs are implemented by local communities under the auspices of health departments and regulatory offices. Methods The control strategy comprised three pillars: (i) community participation (CP) based on the elimination of breeding sites or improved environmental sanitation, using fizzy tablets based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (fizzy Bti tablets; Culinex® Tab plus); (ii) door-to-door (DtD) control by trained staff through the application of high doses of a water-dispersible Bti granular formulation (Vectobac® WG) aimed at achieving a long-lasting killing effect; and (iii) implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to eliminate remaining Ae. albopictus populations. Prior to initiating large-scale city-wide treatments on a routine basis, the efficacy of the three elements was evaluated in laboratory and semi-field trials. Special emphasis was given to the mass release of sterile Ae. albopictus males. Results More than 60% of the local residents actively participated in the first pillar (CP) of the large-scale control program. The most effective element of the program was found to be the DtD intervention, including the application of Vectobac® WG (3000 ITU/mg) to potential breeding sites (10 g per rainwater container, maximum of 200 l = maximum of approx. 150,000 ITU/l, and 2.5 g per container < 50 l) with a persistence of at least 3 weeks. In Ludwigshafen, larval source management resulted in a Container Index for Ae. albopictus of < 1% in 2020 compared to 10.9% in 2019. The mean number of Aedes eggs per ovitrap per 2 weeks was 4.4 in Ludwigshafen, 18.2 in Metzgergrün (Freiburg) (SIT area) and 22.4 in the control area in Gartenstadt (Freiburg). The strong reduction of the Ae. albopictus population by Bti application was followed by weekly releases of 1013 (Ludwigshafen) and 2320 (Freiburg) sterile Ae. albopictus males per hectare from May until October, resulting in a high percentage of sterile eggs. In the trial areas of Ludwigshafen and Frieburg, egg sterility reached 84.7 ± 12.5% and 62.7 ± 25.8%, respectively; in comparison, the natural sterility in the control area was 14.6 ± 7.3%. The field results were in line with data obtained in cage tests under laboratory conditions where sterility rates were 87.5 ± 9.2% after wild females mated with sterile males; in comparison, the sterility of eggs laid by females mated with unirradiated males was only 3.3 ± 2.8%. The overall egg sterility of about 84% in Ludwigshafen indicates that our goal to almost eradicate the Ae. albopictus population could be achieved. The time for inspection and treatment of a single property ranged from 19 to 26 min depending on the experience of the team and costs 6–8 euros per property. Conclusions It is shown that an integrated control program based on a strict monitoring scheme can be most effective when it comprises three components, namely CP, DtD intervention that includes long-lasting Bti-larviciding to strongly reduce Ae. albopictus populations and SIT to reduce the remaining Ae. albopictus population to a minimum or even to eradicate it. The combined use of Bti and SIT is the most effective and selective tool against Ae. albopictus, one of the most dangerous mosquito vector species. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Andres Pajares ◽  
Eugenio Schuster ◽  
Kathreen E Thome ◽  
Anders S Welander ◽  
Jayson L Barr ◽  

Abstract Simulations using the Control-Oriented Transport SIMulator (COTSIM) and DIII-D experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the performance of a novel integrated-control architecture for simultaneous regulation of individual-scalar magnitudes. The individual scalars considered in this work include kinetic variables, such as the thermal stored-energy or volume-average toroidal rotation, and magnetic variables such as the safety factor profile at different spatial locations. Separate control algorithms have been designed independently for each of these individual variables that use robust, nonlinear control techniques. In addition, the individual-scalar controllers have been integrated with Neoclassical Tearing-Mode (NTM) suppression algorithms, supervisory and exception handling algorithms, and an actuator manager, both within COTSIM and in the Plasma Control System (PCS) of the DIII-D tokamak. The resulting architecture has a high level of integration and some of the functionalities that will be required to fulfill the advanced-control requirements anticipated for ITER. Initial simulations using COTSIM suggest that the plasma performance and its Magneto-HydroDynamic (MHD) stability may be improved under integrated feedback control. These simulation results also show good qualitative agreement with DIII-D experimental results in the steady-state high-$q_{min}$ scenario, which is one of the candidates for steady-state operation in ITER. By means of individual-scalar feedback-control techniques in conjunction with NTM-suppression techniques, the confinement deterioration caused by NTMs in these scenarios may be significantly ameliorated.

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