aedes albopictus
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 875
Pontus Öhlund ◽  
Nicolas Delhomme ◽  
Juliette Hayer ◽  
Jenny C. Hesson ◽  
Anne-Lie Blomström

Understanding the flavivirus infection process in mosquito hosts is important and fundamental in the search for novel control strategies that target the mosquitoes’ ability to carry and transmit pathogenic arboviruses. A group of viruses known as insect-specific viruses (ISVs) has been shown to interfere with the infection and replication of a secondary arbovirus infection in mosquitoes and mosquito-derived cell lines. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this interference are unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we infected the Aedes albopictus cell line U4.4 with either the West Nile virus (WNV), the insect-specific Lammi virus (LamV) or an infection scheme whereby cells were pre-infected with LamV 24 h prior to WNV challenge. The qPCR analysis showed that the dual-infected U4.4 cells had a reduced number of WNV RNA copies compared to WNV-only infected cells. The transcriptome profiles of the different infection groups showed a variety of genes with altered expression. WNV-infected cells had an up-regulation of a broad range of immune-related genes, while in LamV-infected cells, many genes related to stress, such as different heat-shock proteins, were up-regulated. The transcriptome profile of the dual-infected cells was a mix of up- and down-regulated genes triggered by both viruses. Furthermore, we observed an up-regulation of signal peptidase complex (SPC) proteins in all infection groups. These SPC proteins have shown importance for flavivirus assembly and secretion and could be potential targets for gene modification in strategies for the interruption of flavivirus transmission by mosquitoes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0010119
Trang Thi Thuy Huynh ◽  
Noboru Minakawa

The primary dengue virus vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, are primarily daytime biting mosquitoes. The risk of infection is suspected to be considerable in urban parks due to visitor traffic. Despite the importance of vector control for reducing dengue transmission, little information is available on vector populations in urban parks. The present study characterized mosquito habitats and estimated vector densities in the major urban parks in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and compared them with those in adjacent residential areas. The prevalences of habitats where Aedes larvae were found were 43% and 9% for the parks and residential areas, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (prevalence ratio [PR]: 5.00, 95% CI: 3.85–6.49). The prevalences of positive larval habitats were significantly greater in the parks for both species than the residential areas (PR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.04–2.22 for A. aegypti, PR: 10.10, 95% CI: 7.23–14.12 for A. albopictus). Larvae of both species were positively associated with discarded containers and planters. Aedes albopictus larvae were negatively associated with indoor habitats, but positively associated with vegetation shade. The adult density of A. aegypti was significantly less in the parks compared with the residential areas (rate ratio [RR]; 0.09, 95% CI: 0.05–0.16), while the density of A. albopictus was significantly higher in the parks (RR: 9.99, 95% CI: 6.85–14.59). When the species were combined, the density was significantly higher in the parks (RR: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.92–3.25). The urban parks provide suitable environment for Aedes mosquitoes, and A. albopictus in particular. Virus vectors are abundant in the urban parks, and the current vector control programs need to have greater consideration of urban parks.

2022 ◽  
Qiong Yang ◽  
Jessica Chung ◽  
Katie Robinson ◽  
Thomas L Schmidt ◽  
Perran Ross ◽  

The arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) is common throughout the Indo-Pacific region, where most global dengue transmission occurs. We analysed population genomic data and tested for cryptic species in 160 Ae. albopictus sampled from 16 locations across this region. We found no evidence of cryptic Ae. albopictus but found multiple intraspecific COI haplotypes partitioned into groups representing three Asian lineages: East Asia, Southeast Asia and Indonesia. Papua New Guinea (PNG), Vanuatu and Christmas Island shared recent coancestry, and Indonesia and Timor-Leste were likely invaded from East Asia. We used a machine learning trained on morphologically sexed samples to classify sexes using multiple genetic features and then characterized the w AlbA and w AlbB Wolbachia infections in 664 other samples. The w AlbA and w AlbB infections as detected by qPCR showed markedly different patterns in the sexes. For females, most populations had a very high double infection incidence, with 67% being the lowest value (from Timor-Leste). For males, the incidence of double infections ranged from 100% (PNG) to 0% (Vanuatu). Only 6 females were infected solely by the w AlbA infection, while rare uninfected mosquitoes were found in both sexes. The w AlbA and w AlbB densities varied significantly among populations. For mosquitoes from Torres Strait and Vietnam, the w AlbB density was similar in single-infected and superinfected ( w AlbA and w AlbB) mosquitoes. There was a positive association between w AlbA and w AlbB infection densities in superinfected Ae. albopictus . Our findings provide no evidence of cryptic species of Ae. albopictus in the region and suggest site-specific factors influencing the incidence of Wolbachia infections and their densities. We also demonstrate the usefulness of SNPs as sex-specific mosquito markers. The results provide baseline data for the exploitation of Wolbachia -induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in dengue control.

Abdullah A Alomar ◽  
Barry W Alto ◽  
Edward D Walker

Abstract Sugar is an essential source of nutrition for adult mosquitoes to acquire energy. Toxic sugar bait (TSB) provides a promising method for mosquito control by incorporating toxins into artificial sources of sugar (i.e., toxic baits) presented to wild populations. Spinosyns comprise a family of bacterial secondary metabolites with a unique mode of action against the insect nervous system, an appealing environmental safety profile, and potential for incorporation into sugar baits. This research evaluated acute and subacute effects of spinosad (spinosyns A and D) and spinetoram (spinosyns J and L) in sugar meals on survival, fecundity, and fertility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Acute toxicity of spinosyns doubled from 24 to 48 h of assessment, revealing a relatively slow and cumulative action of the formulated spinosyns. Median lethal concentrations at 48 h were lower for spinetoram than for spinosad, lower for Ae. albopictus than Ae. aegypti, and lower for males than females. When exposed to subacute LC50 concentrations of spinosad and spinetoram for 24 h, survival of males and females of both species was diminished compared with controls, fecundity of females was increased, but fertility as measured by hatch rate of eggs was decreased. The formulations may have increased the nutritive value of the sugar meals thereby boosting fecundity, while toxifying embryos, reducing fertility. The inclusion of subacute effects of spinosyns allows assessment of the broader consequences of TSB for adult mosquito control.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Norbert Becker ◽  
Sophie Min Langentepe-Kong ◽  
Artin Tokatlian Rodriguez ◽  
Thin Thin Oo ◽  
Dirk Reichle ◽  

Abstract Background The invasive species Aedes albopictus, commonly known as the Asian tiger mosquito, has undergone extreme range expansion by means of steady introductions as blind passengers in vehicles traveling from the Mediterranean to south-west Germany. The more than 25 established populations in the State of Baden-Württemberg, Palatine and Hesse (south-west Germany) have become a major nuisance and public health threat. Aedes albopictus deserves special attention as a vector of arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. In Germany, Ae. albopictus control programs are implemented by local communities under the auspices of health departments and regulatory offices. Methods The control strategy comprised three pillars: (i) community participation (CP) based on the elimination of breeding sites or improved environmental sanitation, using fizzy tablets based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (fizzy Bti tablets; Culinex® Tab plus); (ii) door-to-door (DtD) control by trained staff through the application of high doses of a water-dispersible Bti granular formulation (Vectobac® WG) aimed at achieving a long-lasting killing effect; and (iii) implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to eliminate remaining Ae. albopictus populations. Prior to initiating large-scale city-wide treatments on a routine basis, the efficacy of the three elements was evaluated in laboratory and semi-field trials. Special emphasis was given to the mass release of sterile Ae. albopictus males. Results More than 60% of the local residents actively participated in the first pillar (CP) of the large-scale control program. The most effective element of the program was found to be the DtD intervention, including the application of Vectobac® WG (3000 ITU/mg) to potential breeding sites (10 g per rainwater container, maximum of 200 l = maximum of approx. 150,000 ITU/l, and 2.5 g per container < 50 l) with a persistence of at least 3 weeks. In Ludwigshafen, larval source management resulted in a Container Index for Ae. albopictus of < 1% in 2020 compared to 10.9% in 2019. The mean number of Aedes eggs per ovitrap per 2 weeks was 4.4 in Ludwigshafen, 18.2 in Metzgergrün (Freiburg) (SIT area) and 22.4 in the control area in Gartenstadt (Freiburg). The strong reduction of the Ae. albopictus population by Bti application was followed by weekly releases of 1013 (Ludwigshafen) and 2320 (Freiburg) sterile Ae. albopictus males per hectare from May until October, resulting in a high percentage of sterile eggs. In the trial areas of Ludwigshafen and Frieburg, egg sterility reached 84.7 ± 12.5% and 62.7 ± 25.8%, respectively; in comparison, the natural sterility in the control area was 14.6 ± 7.3%. The field results were in line with data obtained in cage tests under laboratory conditions where sterility rates were 87.5 ± 9.2% after wild females mated with sterile males; in comparison, the sterility of eggs laid by females mated with unirradiated males was only 3.3 ± 2.8%. The overall egg sterility of about 84% in Ludwigshafen indicates that our goal to almost eradicate the Ae. albopictus population could be achieved. The time for inspection and treatment of a single property ranged from 19 to 26 min depending on the experience of the team and costs 6–8 euros per property. Conclusions It is shown that an integrated control program based on a strict monitoring scheme can be most effective when it comprises three components, namely CP, DtD intervention that includes long-lasting Bti-larviciding to strongly reduce Ae. albopictus populations and SIT to reduce the remaining Ae. albopictus population to a minimum or even to eradicate it. The combined use of Bti and SIT is the most effective and selective tool against Ae. albopictus, one of the most dangerous mosquito vector species. Graphical Abstract

2021 ◽  
Vol 72 (4) ◽  
pp. 221-228
Takashi Tsunoda ◽  
Dung Thi Nguyen ◽  
Trang Vi Quyen ◽  
Duoc Trong Vu ◽  
Phong Vu Tran ◽  

Insects ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 1
Vindhya S. Aryaprema ◽  
Whitney A. Qualls ◽  
Karen L. Dobson ◽  
Stephen L. Dobson ◽  
Rui-De Xue

The field release of Wolbachia trans-infected male mosquitoes, as well as the use of toxic sugar baits, is a novel and promising candidate technique for integrated mosquito management programs. However, the methods of action of the two techniques may not be complementary, because the Wolbachia method releases mosquitoes into the environment expecting a wild population reduction in subsequent generations while the toxic baits are intended to reduce the wild population by killing mosquitoes. This laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of boric acid toxic sugar baits on Wolbachia trans-infected male Aedes albopictus, relative to wild-type Ae. albopictus males. Wolbachia trans-infected (ZAP male®) and the wild-type Ae. albopictus males were exposed separately to 1% boric acid in a 10% sucrose solution in BugDorms. In the control test, the two groups were exposed to 10% sucrose solution without boric acid. Percent mortalities were counted for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post exposure periods. The results show that 1% boric acid toxic sugar bait can effectively kill ZAP males under laboratory conditions, and the effectiveness was significantly higher after 24 h and 48 h, compared to wild-type male Ae. albopictus. This finding will help in planning and coordinating integrated mosquito management programs, including both Wolbachia trans-infected mosquito releases and the use of toxic sugar baits against Ae. albopictus.

Insects ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1133
Roland Bamou ◽  
Adama Zan Diarra ◽  
Marie Paul Audrey Mayi ◽  
Borel Djiappi-Tchamen ◽  
Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio ◽  

Wolbachia spp., known to be maternally inherited intracellular bacteria, are widespread among arthropods, including mosquitoes. Our study assessed the presence and prevalence of Wolbachia infection in wild mosquitoes collected in Cameroon, using the combination of 23s rRNA Anaplasmatacea and 16s rRNA Wolbachia genes. Mosquitoes that were positive for Wolbachia were sequenced for subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Out of a total of 1740 individual mosquitoes belonging to 22 species and five genera screened, 33 mosquitoes (1.87%) belonging to eight species (namely, Aedes albopictus, A. contigus, Culex quinquefasciatus, C. perfuscus, C. wigglesworthi, C. duttoni, Anopheles paludis and Coquillettidia sp.) were found to be positive for Wolbachia infections. Wolbachia spp. were absent in A. gambiae and A. aegypti, the main vectors of malaria and dengue, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S RNA sequences showed they belong mainly to two distinct subgroups (A and B). This study reports the presence of Wolbachia in about eight species of mosquitoes in Cameroon and suggests that future characterisation of the strains is needed.

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