Laser drilling of amorphous alloy foils was conducted using low-energy long-pulses (LP) generated using a Nd:YAG laser. Results showed that LP can drill an amorphous alloy foil more efficiently than a nanosecond pulse (NSP) can: an LP at 1 mJ can open a through-hole on an amorphous alloy foil with 25 mm thickness although single shot NSP at 20 mJ formed a crater with ca. 3 mm depth. From these findings, we infer that the markedly higher drilling efficiency of a low-energy LP than that of NSP is attributable to 1) lower plasma generation by LP than by NSP, and 2) repeated irradiation of the target material by multiple sub-pulses in an LP. Results also demonstrate that low-energy LP drilling is applicable to various metal foils and that the drilling efficiency depends on the metal species.
Fe-based amorphous alloy has excellent soft magnetic properties; traditionally, Fe-based amorphous alloy such as soft magnetic devices was fabricated by insulation enveloping and suppression molding methods. In this process, the aging of organic envelope materials and the crystallization of Fe-based amorphous alloy were usually occurring, accompanying with low magnetic induction and poor mechanical properties. The direct ink writing (DIW) technique can make complex-shaped parts and needs no heating treatment after forming, which can avoid the effect of traditional molding process. In the present study, varying mass fraction FeSiB/EP composite parts were prepared by the DIW technique with the Fe-based amorphous alloy powder and epoxy resin, in which microscopic morphology, magnetic properties, and mechanical properties of FeSiB/EP soft magnetic composites were studied. The results indicate that the slurry with iron powder mass fraction of 92.3, 92.6, and 92.8 wt% has good printing performance and self-support ability, which is suitable for DIW. The density of the printed parts is about 4.317, 4.449, and 4.537 g/cm3, which is almost similar with the iron powder. The tensile strength and elongation of printing parts are significantly improved compared with the pure epoxy resin. From the photos of microscopic morphology of printing parts, it can be seen that FeSiB powders are evenly dispersed in EP, no pores, and defects, with the proportion increasing of powders; the insulation coating thickness decreases; and the magnetic performance improves. The optimal sample is 92.8 wt% FeSiB/EP, in which saturation magnetic induction strength is 137.9759 emu/g and coercivity is 4.6523 A/m.
In this study, Fe40Cr19Mo18C15B8 amorphous coatings were prepared using high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) technology. Different temperatures were used in the heat treatment (600 °C, 650 °C, and 700 °C) and the annealed coatings were analyzed by DSC, SEM, TEM, and XRD. XRD and DSC results showed that the coating started to form a crystalline structure after annealing at 650 °C. From the SEM observation, it can be found that when the annealing temperature of the Fe-based amorphous alloy coating reached 700 °C, the surface morphology of the coating became relatively flat. TEM observation showed that when the annealing temperature of the Fe-based amorphous alloy coating was 700 °C, crystal grains in the coating recrystallized with a grain size of 5–20 nm. SAED analysis showed that the precipitated carbide phase was M23C6 phase with different crystal orientations (M = Fe, Cr, Mo). Finally, the corrosion polarization curve showed that the corrosion current density of the coating after annealing only increased by 9.13 μA/cm2, which indicated that the coating after annealing treatment still had excellent corrosion resistance. It also proved that the Fe-based amorphous alloy coating can be used in high-temperature environments. XPS analysis showed that after annealing FeO and Fe2O3 oxide components increased, and the formation of a large number of crystals in the coating resulted in a decrease in corrosion resistance.
High-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF)-sprayed amorphous alloy coatings usually have advantages of a dense structure that improve their resistance to corrosion, wear, and fatigue in the substrate. The flame flow characteristics and particle behaviors during the spray process have a significant influence on the amorphous coating structure and properties. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics model is enforced to analyze the flame flow and Fe-based amorphous alloy particle behavior in an HVOF spray process. The flame flow temperature, velocity characteristics, and the Fe48Cr15Mo14C15B6Y2 Fe-based amorphous alloy particles’ velocities, temperatures, flight trajectories, and mass concentration distribution characteristics are simulated. Moreover, the effects of the oxygen/fuel ratio, particle morphology parameter, particle-injection rate, and angle on the particle behavior are also investigated. Judging from the simulation results, the optimum amorphous alloy particle size varies between 20 and 30 μm, the shape factor is within the range of 0.9–1, the optimum O/F ratio is 3.4, the optimum injection angle is 45°, and the optimum injection rate is 10 m/s. With these conditions, most of the particles settled toward the centerline of the spray gun and are in a semisolid or solid state before affecting the substrate, giving the materials optimal coating structure and performance.