giant cells
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Monir Moradzadeh Khiavi ◽  
Abbas Karimi ◽  
Hassan Mirmohammad Sadeghi ◽  
Samira Derakhshan ◽  
Seyed Mobin Tafreshi ◽  

Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign non-neoplastic intraosseous lesion mainly found in the anterior mandible. It is characterized by multinucleated giant cells, representing osteoclasts or macrophages. Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is an uncommon benign lesion of the jaws. It originates from the odontogenic ectomesenchyme. In rare cases, COF may accompany a CGCG. To date, 49 cases of COF accompanied by CGCG-like lesions have been reported in the literature. In this paper, we present another case of COF-CGCG in a 46-year-old female. The lesion was located in the posterior mandible. Excisional biopsy was carried out, and histopathological analysis revealed multinucleated giant cells with numerous strands of odontogenic epithelium. A literature review of previously reported cases was also performed.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Laura Hunter ◽  
Suzie Hingley-Wilson ◽  
Graham R. Stewart ◽  
Sally A. Sharpe ◽  
Francisco Javier Salguero

Non-human primate models of Tuberculosis (TB) are one of the most commonly used within the experimental TB field because they closely mimic the whole spectrum of disease progression of human TB. However, the early cellular interactions of the pulmonary granuloma are still not well understood. The use of this model allows investigation into the early interactions of cells within pulmonary granulomas which cannot be undertaken in human samples. Pulmonary granulomas from rhesus and cynomolgus macaques from two timepoints post infection were categorised into categories 1 – 6 (early to late stage granulomas) and immunohistochemistry was used to identify CD68+ macrophages, CD3+ T cells and CD20+ B cells. Multinucleated giant cells and acid-fast bacilli were also quantified. At week four post infection, cynomolgus macaques were found to have more CD68+ cells than rhesus in all but category 1 granulomas. Cynomolgus also had a significantly higher percentage of CD20+ B cells in category 1 granulomas. At week twelve post infection, CD68+ cells were most abundant in category 4 and 5 granulomas in both species; however, there were no significant differences between them. CD3+ T cells and CD20+ B cells were significantly higher in the majority of granuloma categories in cynomolgus compared to rhesus. Multinucleated giant cells and acid-fast bacilli were most abundant in categories 5 and 6 at week 12 post challenge in both species. This study has identified the basic cellular composition and spatial distribution of immune cells within pulmonary granulomas in both rhesus and cynomolgus macaques over time. The data from this study will add to the knowledge already gained in this field and may inform future research on vaccines and therapeutics for TB.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 251
Shu Kato ◽  
Yasuhiro Sakai ◽  
Asako Okabe ◽  
Yoshiaki Kawashima ◽  
Kazuhiko Kuwahara ◽  

Sarcoidosis is a rare disease of isolated or diffuse granulomatous inflammation. Although any organs can be affected by sarcoidosis, cardiac sarcoidosis is a fatal disorder, and it is crucial to accurately diagnose it to prevent sudden death due to dysrhythmia. Although endomyocardial biopsy is invasive and has limited sensitivity for identifying granulomas, it is the only modality that yields a definitive diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis. It is imperative to develop novel pathological approaches for the precise diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis. Here, we aimed to discuss commonly used diagnostic criteria for cardiac sarcoidosis and to summarize useful and novel histopathologic criteria of cardiac sarcoidosis. While classical histologic observations including noncaseating granulomas and multinucleated giant cells (typically Langhans type) are the most important findings, others such as microgranulomas, CD68+ CD163− pro-inflammatory (M1) macrophage accumulation, CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio, Cutibacterium acnes components, lymphangiogenesis, confluent fibrosis, and fatty infiltration may help to improve the sensitivity of endomyocardial biopsy for detecting cardiac sarcoidosis. These novel histologic findings are based on the pathology of cardiac sarcoidosis. We also discussed the principal histologic differential diagnoses of cardiac sarcoidosis, such as tuberculosis myocarditis, fungal myocarditis, giant cell myocarditis, and dilated cardiomyopathy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (4) ◽  
pp. 93-102
A. L. Cherniaev ◽  
E. V. Kusraeva ◽  
M. V. Samsonova ◽  
S. N. Avdeev ◽  
N. V. Trushenko ◽  

Aim. To study the relationship between clinical, radiologic, and morphological features in nonfibrotic and fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis.Materials and methods. Clinical symptoms, data of high-resolution computed tomography, parameters of external respiration, and histological changes in the lung tissue obtained via open and transbronchial biopsies were studied retrospectively in 175 patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistica software.Results. We found that the clinical error rate in the diagnosis of HP was 84.5%, among pathologists – 92%. Among all the variants of HP, the most common was fibrotic HP. It was shown that non-necrotizing granulomas and giant cells in the cavities of the alveoli, microcells, and interalveolar septa were more typical of nonfibrotic HP. In fibrotic HP, peribronchial fibrosis, smooth muscle metaplasia in fibrotic areas, and the presence of fibroblastic foci in the walls of terminal bronchioles are signs of differential diagnosis with usual interstitial pneumonia. The classical triad of histological signs was observed in 19.2% of patients with nonfibrotic HP and in 5.6% of patients with fibrotic HP.Conclusion. Diagnosis of HP is complex and should be based on a multidisciplinary approach involving clinicians (pulmonologists), radiologists, functional diagnostics specialists, and pathologists. In this case, it is imperative to take into account and identify factors causing development of the disease, as well as the age of patients. 

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (4) ◽  
pp. 18-24
I. A. Palchikova ◽  
O. A. Denisova ◽  
G. M. Chernyavskaya ◽  
I. L. Purlik ◽  
T. P. Kalacheva ◽  

Aim. To study clinical and morphological phenotypes in different variants of the course of intrathoracic sarcoidosis and isolate new phenotypes.Materials and methods. The study included 121 patients with intrathoracic sarcoidosis aged 21–66 years (50.4% were men, 49.6% were women, the average age at the time of the disease onset was 38 years) over the period 2007– 2019. During the examination, patients’ complaints were studied thoroughly, and the diagnosis was histologically verified in all cases. During an extended histological examination, the quantitative and qualitative composition of biopsy specimens was investigated. The number of granulomas in the field of vision and the content of giant cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils in them were studied. Qualitative parameters were assessed for the presence of hyalinosis, Schaumann bodies, necrosis, stamping, calcification, fibrosis, and vasculitis. All patients were retrospectively divided into two clinical groups depending on the outcomes of the disease: group 1 included patients with a favorable course of sarcoidosis, proceeding without relapses and signs of progression; group 2 encompassed patients with an unfavorable course of the disease with relapses and progression, requiring long-term administration of systemic glucocorticoids.Results. The analysis showed that among all general clinical manifestations, only the presence of dyspnea, skin manifestations, and weight loss occurred significantly more often in the patients with an unfavorable course of intrathoracic sarcoidosis (р = 0.04; 0.02; and 0.01, respectively). Among morphological parameters, a large number of macrophages was significantly more frequent in the biopsy specimens in this group of patients (р < 0.01). 

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. e245641
Deepayan Sarkar ◽  
Himani Chawla ◽  
Priti Singh ◽  
Vidhya Verma

A 36-year-old Asian man presented with swelling over the left frontal region involving the upper eyelids, with associated erythema and tenderness for 1 month duration. Clinically he was diagnosed as a case of preseptal cellulitis, however, the lesion did not improve on broad-spectrum systemic antibiotics. CT showed superficial soft tissue swelling in the forehead extending till the superior part of orbit. Histopathological assessment of the lesion revealed clusters of epithelioid cells with multinucleate giant cells in the dermis along with perivascular and periadnexal lymphocytic infiltrates, suggestive of leprosy. The patient was started on oral steroids with multidrug therapy, following which the patient showed early resolution of the lesion within 10 days of treatment. Leprosy is endemic in India, leprosy with reactional episodes mimics other inflammatory and infective etiologies making diagnosis difficult. Leprosy should be present in an ophthalmologist’s diagnostic repertoire while dealing with periorbital swellings for early clinical diagnosis and favourable outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 118427-118437
Henry Mcarter Senra Almeida ◽  
Marcelo Victor Coelho Marques ◽  
Quércia Alves de Almeida Lopes ◽  
Natanael dos Santos Isidório Cavalcante ◽  
Danilo dos Santos Araújo ◽  

K. Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy ◽  
N. Brahma Chary ◽  
Chenna K. Mogili

<p class="abstract">Giant cell tumour (GCT) in adolescent is a rare tumour. It commonly occurs in skeletally mature patients aged between 20-40 years. In adults it is seen in epiphyseal region. In patients with intact physis, it arises from the metaphysis. Giant cells are more common in females. It is more common in the ends of long bones of distal end of femur, proximal tibia, and distal radius. 14 cases of surgical management of GCT by excision or curettage in adolescent followed by fibular strut graft. 1 year follow up of all cases of GCT in adolescent treated with excision or curettage followed by fibular strut graft was done. Out of 14 patients, 12 patients did not develop any recurrence of GCT. 2 patient developed recurrence after 6 months. All the patients were able to attain good range of movements 2 months after surgery. GCT in adolescent surgically treated with excision or curettage followed by fibular graft had excellent results in terms of recovery of daily activities, wound healing. Chances of recurrence more in patients treated with curettage and bone grafting.</p><p class="abstract"> </p>

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