histologic subtype
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2021 ◽  
Naghib Bogere ◽  
Felix Bongomin ◽  
Andrew Katende ◽  
Blair Andrew Omaido ◽  
Elizabeth Namukwaya ◽  

Abstract Background: Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Uganda. In this study, we aimed to describe the baseline characteristics and survival of patients with lung cancer at Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI). Methodology: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all patients with a histological diagnosis of lung cancer registered at UCI between January 2008 and August 2018. Data on demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics, and vital status were abstracted and analyzed. Patients with undocumented vital status on the medical records were contacted through phone calls. We determined survival as time from histological diagnosis to death. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to estimate the median survival time and the 5-year overall survival rate. Results: Of the 207 patients enrolled, 56.5% (n=117) were female, median age was 60 years (range: 20-94), 78.7% (n=163) were never-smokers and 18 (8.7%) were living with HIV. Presumptive anti-tuberculosis treatment was given to 23.2% (n=48). Majority had non-small cell lung cancer (96.6%, n=200) with 74.5% (n=149) adenocarcinoma and 19% (n=38) squamous cell carcinoma. All had advanced (stage III or IV) disease with 96.1% (n=199) in stage IV. Chemotherapy (44.9%, n=93) and biological therapy (34.8%, n=72) were the commonest treatments used. Overall survival at 6 months, 1-, 2- and 5-years was 41.7%, 29.7%, 11.8% and 1.7% respectively. The median survival time was 4.4 months and was not different between NSCLC and SCLC (4.5 vs. 3.9 months respectively, p=.335). Conclusion: In Uganda, adenocarcinoma is the predominant histologic subtype of lung cancer predominantly occurring in females and non-smokers. Patients present late with advanced disease and poor overall survival. Public awareness should be heightened to facilitate early screening and improve outcomes.

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 31
Jeannette D. Andersen ◽  
Knud Fabrin ◽  
Astrid Petersen ◽  
Helle D. Zacho

Urachal cancer arises from an embryologic remnant of the urogenital sinus and allantois and accounts for approximately 1% of bladder malignancies. The most encountered histologic subtype is adenocarcinoma. We present a 76-year-old man suspected to have an advanced sigmoid cancer infiltrating nearby organs. A supplemental 18F-FDG PET/CT showed high tracer uptake in a tumorous process coherent with the dome of the bladder wall involving the sigmoid colon. Cystoscopy revealed a normal bladder wall, except for a small edematous area in the anterior bladder. Biopsies from the sigmoid colon and transurethral resection from the bladder confirmed a urothelial carcinoma originating from the urachus.

Tumor Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 355-365
Alexandra Blackman ◽  
Jessica Mitchell ◽  
Rachael Rowswell-Turner ◽  
Rakesh Singh ◽  
Kyu Kwang Kim ◽  

BACKGROUND: The measurement of serum HE4 levels has emerged as a sensitive and specific biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs). However, serum levels in women diagnosed with various histologic subtypes of EOC and in women with metastatic non-ovarian primary malignancies have not been widely reported. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to identify how serum HE4 levels vary in women diagnosed with different histologic subtypes of EOC and non-ovarian malignancies. METHODS: Data from six prospective pelvic mass clinical trials was combined and an evaluation of serum HE4 levels in women diagnosed with a malignancy was performed. For all patients, serum was obtained prior to surgery and final pathology, including primary tumor site, histologic subtype, grade and stage, were recorded. The mean, median, standard deviation, maximum, and minimum HE4 levels were determined for each group. RESULTS: A total of 984 patients were included in this study, with the average patient age being 60 years old. There were 230 premenopausal and 754 postmenopausal patients. Serum HE4 levels were elevated (≥70.0 pMol) in 85%of EOCs, 40%of LMP tumors, 21%of non-EOCs (germ cell tumors), 25%of cervical cancers, and 47%of non-gynecologic metastatic cancers. Analysis of histologic subtypes revealed 90%(n = 391) of serous, 85%(n = 73) of endometrioid, 45%(n = 42) of mucinous, 86%(n = 51) of mixed tumors, and 69%(n = 36) of clear cell tumors had elevated serum HE4 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Serum HE4 levels are most often elevated in women with high grade serous and endometrioid EOCs, and though serum elevations are seen more often with advanced stage disease, HE4 is also often elevated in early stage disease and lower grade tumors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 64 (12) ◽  
pp. 954-958
Seulki Song ◽  
Dae Hyun Song ◽  
Jin Pyeong Kim

Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is a histologic subtype of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), with a predominant myxoid component. MFS is characterized by locally aggressive behavior and a high rate of local recurrence, however, with a good prognosis. Head and neck MFS accounts for 3% of all cases of MFS. To date, only two cases of laryngeal MFS have been reported. Owing to the rarity of MFS, the clinical characteristics and optimal treatment options remain controversial. Surgical resection with a clear margin is considered the treatment of choice. Compared to traditional MFS tumors, epithelioid variants have worse prognosis. Other factors associated with a poor prognosis of MFS tumors include inadequate surgical margins, large tumor size, old age, and high-grade tumors. Herein, we report a case of high-grade epithelioid variant MFS located in the false vocal fold, requiring total laryngectomy to obtain an adequate surgical margin. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of epithelioid variant of high-grade MFS presenting in the larynx.

2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Laura Pala ◽  
Fabio Conforti ◽  
Eleonora Pagan ◽  
Vincenzo Bagnardi ◽  
Tommaso M. De Pas ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jiuhong Li ◽  
Xin Zan ◽  
Min Feng ◽  
Xueyun Deng ◽  
Si Zhang ◽  

Lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma (LRM) is a rare histologic subtype of meningioma. Creeping-growth pattern is uncommon in meningioma, and the mechanism is unclear. Here, we report a 44-year-old man presented with extremities weakness for 2 months and incontinence for 2 weeks. Head and neck MRI revealed diffuse creeping-growth nodular meningeal masses with skull base, tentorium, sella area, and C1-6 vertebral plane involvement. An operation was carried out, cervical and lower clivus part of the lesion was resected, but gross total resection could not be achieved due to the widespread lesions. Pathologic examination revealed the diagnosis of LRM. The patient is free from progression clinically 3 months postoperatively. We also conducted a systematic literature review about LRM with creeping-growth pattern. A total of only nine cases (including the present case) of creeping-growth LRMs were included and analyzed in terms of clinical manifestations, radiological features, treatment, and outcome. LRMs show a higher rate (7.5%) of creeping-growth pattern than other types of meningiomas. The average creeping length of all creeping-growth LRMs was 11.4 ± 10.9 cm (range, 3–30 cm). Most cases (66.7%) had obvious peritumoral edema. Total removal rate is low (33.3%), and two of them (22.2%) received biopsy, followed by steroids treatment (or further immunosuppressive drugs therapy) and radiotherapy. The recurrence rate is higher than conventional LRMs (22.2 vs. 11.3%), and one patient (11.1%) died 11 months after treatment. Creeping-growth pattern in LRM may be considered as a general radiologic variant. The recurrence rate is higher compared with LRM with round/swelling pattern. We speculated that the pathogenesis of creeping growth in LRM may be associated with damage of lymphatic systems of the central nervous system.

Sarcoma ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Jeffrey Mark Brown ◽  
David Matichak ◽  
Kyla Rakoczy ◽  
John Groundland

Introduction. Osteosarcoma is the most common sarcoma of bone. Pelvic osteosarcoma presents a significant therapeutic challenge due to potential late symptom onset, metastatic dissemination at diagnosis, and inherent difficulties of wide surgical resection secondary to the complex and critical anatomy of the pelvis. The rates of survival are well reported for osteosarcoma of the appendicular skeleton, but specific details regarding presentation and survival are less known for osteosarcoma of the pelvis. Methods. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program was queried for primary osteosarcoma of the bony pelvis from 2004 to 2015. Cases with Collaborative Staging variables (available after 2004) were analyzed by grade, histologic subtype, surgical intervention, tumor size, tumor extension, and presence of metastasis at diagnosis. The 2-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were assessed with respect to these variables. The SEER database was then queried for age, tumor size, surgical intervention, metastasis at time of presentation, and survivorship data for patients with primary osteosarcoma of the upper extremity, lower extremity, vertebrae, thorax, and face/skull, and rates for all anatomic locations were then compared to patients with primary pelvic osteosarcoma. Results. A total of 292 cases of pelvic osteosarcoma were identified from 2004 to 2015 within the database, representing 9.8% of cases among all surveyed primary sites. The most common histologic subtype was osteoblastic osteosarcoma (69.9%), followed by chondroblastic osteosarcoma (22.3%). The majority of cases were high-grade tumors (94.3%), of size >8 cm (72.0%), and with extension beyond the originating bone (74.0%). For the entire pelvic osteosarcoma group, the 2-, 5-, 10-year survival rates were 45.6%, 26.5%, and 21.4%, respectively, which were the poorest among surveyed anatomic sites. The 5-year overall survival was an abysmal 5.3% for patients with metastatic disease at diagnosis, and 37.0% for non-metastatic pelvic osteosarcoma treated with surgery and chemotherapy. When compared to other locations, pelvic osteosarcoma had higher rates of metastatic disease at presentation (33.5%), larger median tumor size (11.0 cm), and older median age at diagnosis (47.5 years). While over 85% of patients with tumors at the extremities received surgery, only 47.4% of pelvic osteosarcomas in this cohort received surgical resection—likely influenced by larger tumor size, sacral involvement, frequency of metastasis, older age, or delayed referral to a sarcoma center. Conclusion. This study clarifies presenting features and clinical outcomes of pelvic osteosarcomas, which often present with large, high-grade tumors with extracompartmental extension, high likelihood of metastatic disease at diagnosis, and a potential limited ability to be addressed surgically. The survival rates of primary osteosarcoma of the pelvis are poor and are lower than osteosarcomas from other anatomic locations. While acknowledging the influence of metastasis, tumor characteristics, and advanced age on the decision to undergo surgical excision of a pelvic osteosarcoma, the rates of surgical resection are low and highlight the importance of understanding appropriate conditions for oncologic resection of pelvic sarcomas.

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2270
Yen-Chieh Wang ◽  
Wei-Chi Ku ◽  
Chih-Yi Liu ◽  
Yu-Che Cheng ◽  
Chih-Cheng Chien ◽  

In bladder cancer, urothelial carcinoma is the most common histologic subtype, accounting for more than 90% of cases. Pathogenic effects due to the dysbiosis of gut microbiota are localized not only in the colon, but also in regulating bladder cancer distally. Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced by gut microbial metabolism, is mainly studied in colon diseases. Therefore, the resolution of the anti-cancer effects of butyrate-producing microbes on bladder urothelial cells and knowledge of the butyrate-responsive molecules must have clinical significance. Here, we demonstrate a correlation between urothelial cancer of the bladder and Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum. This butyrate-producing microbe or their metabolite, butyrate, mediated anti-cancer effects on bladder urothelial cells by regulating cell cycle, cell growth, apoptosis, and gene expression. For example, a tumor suppressor against urothelial cancer of the bladder, bladder cancer-associated protein, was induced in butyrate-treated HT1376 cells, a human urinary bladder cancer cell line. In conclusion, urothelial cancer of the bladder is a significant health problem. To improve the health of bladder urothelial cells, supplementation of B. pullicaecorum may be necessary and can further regulate butyrate-responsive molecular signatures.

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