Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign non-neoplastic intraosseous lesion mainly found in the anterior mandible. It is characterized by multinucleated giant cells, representing osteoclasts or macrophages. Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is an uncommon benign lesion of the jaws. It originates from the odontogenic ectomesenchyme. In rare cases, COF may accompany a CGCG. To date, 49 cases of COF accompanied by CGCG-like lesions have been reported in the literature. In this paper, we present another case of COF-CGCG in a 46-year-old female. The lesion was located in the posterior mandible. Excisional biopsy was carried out, and histopathological analysis revealed multinucleated giant cells with numerous strands of odontogenic epithelium. A literature review of previously reported cases was also performed.
Non-human primate models of Tuberculosis (TB) are one of the most commonly used within the experimental TB field because they closely mimic the whole spectrum of disease progression of human TB. However, the early cellular interactions of the pulmonary granuloma are still not well understood. The use of this model allows investigation into the early interactions of cells within pulmonary granulomas which cannot be undertaken in human samples. Pulmonary granulomas from rhesus and cynomolgus macaques from two timepoints post infection were categorised into categories 1 – 6 (early to late stage granulomas) and immunohistochemistry was used to identify CD68+ macrophages, CD3+ T cells and CD20+ B cells. Multinucleated giant cells and acid-fast bacilli were also quantified. At week four post infection, cynomolgus macaques were found to have more CD68+ cells than rhesus in all but category 1 granulomas. Cynomolgus also had a significantly higher percentage of CD20+ B cells in category 1 granulomas. At week twelve post infection, CD68+ cells were most abundant in category 4 and 5 granulomas in both species; however, there were no significant differences between them. CD3+ T cells and CD20+ B cells were significantly higher in the majority of granuloma categories in cynomolgus compared to rhesus. Multinucleated giant cells and acid-fast bacilli were most abundant in categories 5 and 6 at week 12 post challenge in both species. This study has identified the basic cellular composition and spatial distribution of immune cells within pulmonary granulomas in both rhesus and cynomolgus macaques over time. The data from this study will add to the knowledge already gained in this field and may inform future research on vaccines and therapeutics for TB.
AbstractCell membrane fusion and multinucleation in macrophages are associated with physiologic homeostasis as well as disease. Osteoclasts are multinucleated macrophages that resorb bone through increased metabolic activity resulting from cell fusion. Fusion of macrophages also generates multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) in white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese individuals. For years, our knowledge of MGCs in WAT has been limited to their description as part of crown-like structures (CLS) surrounding damaged adipocytes. However, recent evidence indicates that these cells can phagocytose oversized lipid remnants, suggesting that, as in osteoclasts, cell fusion and multinucleation are required for specialized catabolic functions. We thus reason that WAT MGCs can be viewed as functionally analogous to osteoclasts and refer to them in this article as adipoclasts. We first review current knowledge on adipoclasts and their described functions. In view of recent advances in single cell genomics, we describe WAT macrophages from a ‘fusion perspective’ and speculate on the ontogeny of adipoclasts. Specifically, we highlight the role of CD9 and TREM2, two plasma membrane markers of lipid-associated macrophages in WAT, which have been previously described as regulators of fusion and multinucleation in osteoclasts and MGCs. Finally, we consider whether strategies aiming to target WAT macrophages can be more selectively directed against adipoclasts.
Mycobacteriosis, mostly resulting from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), and Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), is the long-standing granulomatous disease that ravages several organs including skin, lung, and peripheral nerves, and it has a spectrum of clinical-pathologic features based on the interaction of bacilli and host immune response. Histiocytes in infectious granulomas mainly consist of infected and uninfected macrophages (Mφs), multinucleated giant cells (MGCs), epithelioid cells (ECs), and foam cells (FCs), which are commonly discovered in lesions in patients with mycobacteriosis. Granuloma Mφ polarization or reprogramming is the crucial appearance of the host immune response to pathogen aggression, which gets a command of endocellular microbe persistence. Herein, we recapitulate the current gaps and challenges during Mφ polarization and the different subpopulations of mycobacteriosis.
Aim. To study the ultrastructure of mitral bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs) which failed due to infective endocarditis.Materials and Methods. Here we examined 7 ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether-treated xenopericardial BHVs excised during repeated BHV replacement because of prosthetic endocarditis. After being fixed in formalin and postfixed in osmium tetroxide, BHVs were dehydrated and stained in uranyl acetate with the subsequent embedding into epoxy resin, grinding, polishing, and lead citrate counterstaining. Upon the sputter coating with carbon, we visualised the BHV microanatomy by means of backscattered scanning electron microscopy at 15 kV voltage.Results. The extracellular matrix underwent degradation and disintegration resulting in loosening, fragmentation, and reduction in the electron density of collagen and elastin fibers. We observed a number of recipient cells (macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, neutrophils, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells) within the BHVs. The highest number of cells was localized on the valve surfaces. The localization of the recipient cells on the ventricular and atrial surfaces was different. The central part of the valves was abundantly populated by macrophages.Conclusion. Prosthetic endocarditis is accompanied by the migration of recipient cells into the BHV structure, which is the consequence of surface and extracellular matrix disintegration.
<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Paraffin injections for breast augmentation once a popular form of mammoplasty are now considered obsolete. It had been abandoned by clinicians because of its associated serious complications. The practice is however still available and is being practiced by nonmedically qualified people. Paraffin injection results in the formation of multiple foreign-body granulomas known as breast paraffinoma. The clinical features of breast paraffinoma can mimic and be mistaken for breast carcinoma or inflammatory breast carcinoma. The use of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the evaluation of patients with breast paraffinoma has not been fully evaluated. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Retrospective review was performed on 30 patients who presented with breast paraffinoma between June 1, 2010, and June 30, 2020, who also had FNAC as part of their breast lump evaluation. <b><i>Results:</i></b> FNAC of 73.3% patients showed multinucleated giant cells and macrophages or histiocytes containing engulfed clear, empty intracytoplasmic vacuoles of varying sizes. In 13.3% of the patients, macrophages or histiocytes with engulfed clear intracytoplasmic vacuoles of varying sizes were seen. In 6.7% of patients, multinucleated giant cells containing engulfed vacuoles of varying sizes were seen, and in 6.7% of patients, hypocellular smears with large amount of clear spaces were seen. Oily droplets were seen in the background of all the smears, and there were no malignant cells seen. These features were compatible with breast paraffinoma. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Most patients with breast paraffinoma can be managed conservatively and they do not require further treatment; FNAC with its characteristic features can provide the reliable diagnosis of breast paraffinoma and therefore sparing these patients from more invasive diagnostic procedures.
Chagas disease, once confined to rural Latin America is an increasing public health concern in non-endemic countries due to population movements. Here we present an unexpected finding of a placenta infected with T. cruzi from a Brazilian woman residing in Ireland. Histology of the placenta showed a lymphocytic chorioamnionitis with multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) as well as cord vasculitis and funisitis. Amastigotes of trypanosomiasis were found in both cord and membranes. The placenta parenchyma, however, had no villitis or amastigotes and maturation was appropriate for gestation. To date, there have been few reported cases of vertical transmission in non-endemic countries. We discuss the histological findings and review the literature on potential modes of transmission from mother to fetus.
Male germline development involves choreographed changes to mitochondrial number, morphology, and organization. Mitochondrial reorganization during spermatogenesis was recently shown to require mitochondrial fusion and fission. Mitophagy, the autophagic degradation of mitochondria, is another mechanism for controlling mitochondrial number and physiology, but its role during spermatogenesis is largely unknown. During post-meiotic spermatid development, restructuring of the mitochondrial network results in packing of mitochondria into a tight array in the sperm midpiece to fuel motility. Here, we show that disruption of mouse Fis1 in the male germline results in early spermatid arrest that is associated with increased mitochondrial content. Mutant spermatids coalesce into multinucleated giant cells (GCs) that accumulate mitochondria of aberrant ultrastructure and numerous mitophagic and autophagic intermediates, suggesting a defect in mitophagy. We conclude that Fis1 regulates mitochondrial morphology and turnover to promote spermatid maturation.