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2021 ◽  
Mamoutou Diarra ◽  
Walid Dabbous ◽  
Amine Ismail ◽  
Thierry Turletti

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0259060
Esraa Al-Ezaly ◽  
Ahmed Abo-Elfetoh ◽  
Sara Elhishi

Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) address a steadily expanding demand, particularly for public emergency applications. Real-time localization of destination vehicles is important for determining the route to deliver messages. Existing location administration services in VANETs are classified as flooding-based, flat-based, and geographic-based location services. Existing localization techniques suffer from network disconnection and overloading because of 5G VANET topology changes. 5G VANETs have low delay and support time-sensitive applications. A traffic light-inspired location service (TLILS) is proposed to manage localization inspired by traffic lights. The proposed optimized localization service uses roadside units (RSUs) as location servers. RSUs with the maximum traffic weight metrics were chosen. Traffic weight metrics are based on speed of vehicles, connection time and density of neighboring vehicles. The proposed TLILS outperforms both Name-ID Hybrid Routing (NIHR) and Zoom-Out Geographic Location Service (ZGLS) for packet delivery ratio (PDR) and delay. TLILSs guarantee the highest PDR (0.96) and the shortest end-to-end delay (0.001 s) over NIHR and ZGLS.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2083 (4) ◽  
pp. 042074
Wuzhou Li ◽  
Shicong Lin ◽  
Zehui Liu

Abstract Laser guidance is a continuous process, during which a lot of operational data and corresponding changes are generated. Aiming at the live-fire drill shooting training and assessment evaluation of a certain type of laser-guided missile, this paper analyzes the principle of laser guidance, studies the weighting system of the information field based on the importance of characteristic intervals, integrates and processes the data and outputs the aiming effect picture and sheet, and constructs the aiming and tracking ability evaluation model. Stationary targets and moving targets are tested respectively, and the verification model can realize the calculation of laser information field, the integration of coordinate data, the output of aiming effect diagram, and the evaluation of the shooter’s aiming and tracking ability expressed in a percentage system. The model realizes data collection, integration and processing based on MATLAB software, and builds graph and table output ports, which can realize low delay processing of a large amount of short-term data.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2113 (1) ◽  
pp. 012064
Menghua Cao ◽  
Weixun Tang

Abstract This paper comments on four works for the optimization of comparator design. Today, with the development of integrated circuits, the requirements for comparators about low power, low delay, few offset voltage, and low noise are highly desirable. Specifically, these works made progress in the conventional comparator, which comprises a preamplifier and a latch. They also solved some problems, such as decreasing power and delay. Some works employ a positive feedback cross-coupled pares to provide a larger gain in the preamplifier, use PMOS switch transistors to accelerate the definition phase, or a double-tail architecture to increase the latch regeneration speed. Other work designs a charge pump to improve speed.

Frequenz ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Mohamed Salah Bouaouina ◽  
Mohamed Redha Lebbal ◽  
Mohamed Bouchemat ◽  
Touraya Bouchemat

Abstract Nowadays, the development of optical telecommunication systems requires more efficient all-optical elements appreciation to their high data transmission speeds and reduced electromagnetic interferences. In this work, our objective is to attest by simulation a design of an optical switch using 2D photonic crystals from polystyrene, an organic polymeric material with high Kerr non-linearity. This excellent ultra-fast switching leads us to the exploited in the construction of two new structures of all-optical AND/NAND and OR/NOR logic gates. These structures based on non-linear ring resonator NRR of different radius in order to operate a telecom wavelength of 1550.3 µm using RSoft (Full-Wave) software. The average contrast intensity is between 15.52 and 23.42 dB and low delay time varied from 20 fs to 5.0 ps. Hence, resulting a very high output signal for ON-switching (82–130% of P in) and a weak signal for OFF-switching (0.2–7% of P in) through a minimum threshold power around of 1.2 mW/μm2.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (19) ◽  
pp. 9280
Ankit Kumar ◽  
Bumshik Lee

In the standardization of versatile video coding (VVC), discrete cosine transform (DCT)-2, discrete sine transform (DST)-7, and DCT-8 are regarded as the primary transform kernels. However, DST-4 and DCT-4 can also be considered as the transform kernels instead of using DST-7 and DCT-8 owing to their effectiveness in smaller resolution test sequences. To implement these different block size transform kernels, a considerable amount of memory has to be allocated. Moreover, memory consumption to store different block size transform kernels is regarded as a major issue in video coding standardization. To address this problem, a common sparse unified matrix concept is introduced in this study, where any block size transform kernel matrix can be obtained after some mathematical operations. The proposed common sparse unified matrix saves approximately 80% of the static memory by storing only a few transform kernel elements for DCT-2, DST-7, and DCT-8. Full-required transform kernels are derived using the stored transform kernels and generated unit-element matrices and a permutation matrix. The static memory required is only for 1648 elements instead of 8180 elements, each with 8-bit precision. The defined common sparse unified matrix is composed of two parts: a unified DST-3 matrix and a grouped DST-7 matrix. The unified DST-3 matrix is used to derive different points of DCT-2 transform kernels, and the grouped DST-7 matrix is used to derive different points of DST-7 and DCT-8 transform kernels. The new technique of grouping concept is introduced, which shows the relationship between different rows of DST-7 transform kernels with various block sizes. The proposed grouping concept supports the fast algorithm of DST-7 by implementing the proposed method of the “one group one feature” principle. The simulation was conducted using the VTM-3.0 reference software under common test conditions. The simulation result of the all intra (AI) configuration is Y = 0.00%, U = −0.02%, V = 0.00% with an encoding time of 100%, and a decoding time of 100%. Similarly, the simulation results of random access (RA) configuration are Y = −0.01%, U = 0.09%, V = 0.06%, and the encoding and decoding times are 101% and 100%, respectively. The simulation result of the low delay B (LDB) configuration is Y = 0.01%, U = 0.08%, and V = −0.27%, for encoding and decoding times of 101% and 100%, respectively.

Rohini Srivastava ◽  
Ch Kalyan Kumar Prusty ◽  
Nitin Sahai ◽  
Ravi Prakash Tewari ◽  
Basant Kumar

Koné Kigninman Désiré ◽  
Eya Dhib ◽  
Nabil Tabbane ◽  
Olivier Asseu

Cloud gaming has become the new service provisioning prototype that hosts the video games in the cloud and broadcasts the interactive game streaming to the players through the Internet. Here, the cloud must use massive resources for video representation and its streaming when several simultaneous players reach a particular point. Alternatively, various players may have separate necessities on Quality-of Experience, like low delay, high-video quality, etc. The challenging task is providing better service by the fixed cloud resource. Hence, there is a necessity for an energy-aware multi-resource allocation in the cloud. This paper devises a Fractional Rider-Harmony search algorithm (Fractional Rider-HSA) for resource allocation in the cloud. The Fractional Rider-HSA combines fractional calculus, Rider Optimization algorithm (ROA), and HSA. Moreover, the fitness function, like mean opinion score (MOS), gaming experience loss, fairness, energy consumption, and network parameters, is considered to determine the optimal resource allocation. The proposed model produces the maximal MOS of 0.8961, maximal gaming experience loss (QE) of 0.998, maximal fairness of 0.9991, the minimum energy consumption of 0.3109, and minimal delay 0.2266, respectively.

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