Offset Voltage
Recently Published Documents


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

330
(FIVE YEARS 111)

H-INDEX

19
(FIVE YEARS 3)

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 135
Author(s):  
Iulia Iovanca Drăgoi ◽  
Florina Georgeta Popescu ◽  
Teodor Petrița ◽  
Romulus Fabian Tatu ◽  
Cosmina Ioana Bondor ◽  
...  

Custom-made dynamometry was shown to objectively analyze human muscle strength around the ankle joint with accuracy, easy portability and low costs. This paper describes the full method of calibration and measurement setup and the measurement procedure when capturing ankle torque for establishing reliability of a portable custom-built electronic dynamometer. After considering the load cell offset voltage, the pivotal position was determined, and calibration with loads followed. Linear regression was used for calculating the proportionality constant between torque and measured voltage. Digital means were used for data collection and processing. Four healthy consenting participants were enrolled in the study. Three consecutive maximum voluntary isometric contractions of five seconds each were registered for both feet during plantar flexion/dorsiflexion, and ankle torque was then calculated for three ankle inclinations. A calibration procedure resulted, comprising determination of the pivotal axis and pedal constant. Using the obtained data, a measurement procedure was proposed. Obtained contraction time graphs led to easier filtering of the results. When calculating the interclass correlation, the portable apparatus demonstrated to be reliable when measuring ankle torque. When a custom-made dynamometer was used for capturing ankle torque, accuracy of the method was assured by a rigorous calibration and measurement protocol elaboration.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1198 (1) ◽  
pp. 012006
Author(s):  
S V Kalashnikov ◽  
N A Romanov ◽  
A V Nomoev

Abstract Installation designed to measure the dielectric anisotropy in laboratory studies of liquid crystal polymer films is described. The installation operates on the principle of a balanced alternating current (AC) bridge, allowing the application of a direct external current (bias) to the liquid crystal cell. The internal resistance of the direct current (DC) source, which affects the equilibrium condition of the bridge, is compensated. The frequency of the AC current feeding the bridge and the offset voltage of the cell is regulated within a wide range, which makes it possible to study various functional dependences of the dielectric parameters of liquid crystals and their modifiers.Introduction


2021 ◽  
Vol 2113 (1) ◽  
pp. 012064
Author(s):  
Menghua Cao ◽  
Weixun Tang

Abstract This paper comments on four works for the optimization of comparator design. Today, with the development of integrated circuits, the requirements for comparators about low power, low delay, few offset voltage, and low noise are highly desirable. Specifically, these works made progress in the conventional comparator, which comprises a preamplifier and a latch. They also solved some problems, such as decreasing power and delay. Some works employ a positive feedback cross-coupled pares to provide a larger gain in the preamplifier, use PMOS switch transistors to accelerate the definition phase, or a double-tail architecture to increase the latch regeneration speed. Other work designs a charge pump to improve speed.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ara Abdulsatar Assim Assim ◽  
Evgenii Balashov

The given work is devoted to designing and implementing different dynamic offset cancellation techniques for 50 nm technology CMOS operational amplifiers. The goal is to minimize or get rid of the effects of the offset voltage. Offset voltage exists in all differential amplifiers due to the fact that no pair of transistors can be fabricated with the same size, there is always a slight difference in their dimensions (length or width), this gives rise to an undesirable effect called offset, the value of offset voltage for cheap commercial amplifiers are in the range of 1 to 10 mV, de-spite the fact that this isn’t a significant value, due to the high gain of such amplifiers, this voltage is amplified by tens or hundreds of times, this results in clipping of the output signal and this further limits the amplifier’s maximum allowable input voltage within the given dynamic range, hence its of great importance to take this small voltage into consideration, low-offset amplifiers find applications in mixers, analog to digital converters, instrumentation devices, etc. In this thesis, by using two different techniques for removing offset voltage (chopping and auto-zeroing), five low offset operational amplifiers were designed. The implemented methods reduced the flicker noise by more than 457 times (from 9.4 nV/√Hz to 20 pV/√Hz) at 1 Hz. All the simulations were done using Cadence Virtuoso.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ara Abdulsatar Assim Assim ◽  
Evgenii Balashov

The given work is devoted to designing and implementing different dynamic offset cancellation techniques for 50 nm technology CMOS operational amplifiers. The goal is to minimize or get rid of the effects of the offset voltage. Offset voltage exists in all differential amplifiers due to the fact that no pair of transistors can be fabricated with the same size, there is always a slight difference in their dimensions (length or width), this gives rise to an undesirable effect called offset, the value of offset voltage for cheap commercial amplifiers are in the range of 1 to 10 mV, de-spite the fact that this isn’t a significant value, due to the high gain of such amplifiers, this voltage is amplified by tens or hundreds of times, this results in clipping of the output signal and this further limits the amplifier’s maximum allowable input voltage within the given dynamic range, hence its of great importance to take this small voltage into consideration, low-offset amplifiers find applications in mixers, analog to digital converters, instrumentation devices, etc. In this thesis, by using two different techniques for removing offset voltage (chopping and auto-zeroing), five low offset operational amplifiers were designed. The implemented methods reduced the flicker noise by more than 457 times (from 9.4 nV/√Hz to 20 pV/√Hz) at 1 Hz. All the simulations were done using Cadence Virtuoso.


Author(s):  
Ashima Gupta ◽  
Anil Singh ◽  
Alpana Agarwal

This paper presents a scalable Fully-digital differential analog voltage comparator designed in Semi-Conductor Laboratory (SCL) 180[Formula: see text]nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology. The proposed design is based on a digital design approach and is easily configurable to lower technology nodes. This design methodology makes the circuit less sensitive to process variations and takes fewer design efforts suitable for Systems-on-a-Chips (SOCs) application. The proposed circuit is designed and simulated in Cadence Virtuoso Analog Design Environment at the supply voltage ranging from 1[Formula: see text]V to 1.8[Formula: see text]V. The fully-digital analog voltage comparator has been synthesized using Synopsys Design Vision and auto-placed & auto-routed using Synopsys IC Compiler. This proposed comparator has a resolution of up to 7-bit at a supply voltage of 1.8[Formula: see text]V and a worst-case operating frequency of about 750 MHz at the TT corner. The obtained value of the offset voltage and delay is 0.55[Formula: see text]mV and 0.72 ns, respectively. The simulated results have shown that the power dissipation of the proposed scalable analog voltage comparator is [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]V and [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]V supply voltage, respectively. Also, the RC extracted post-layout simulations have been implemented to verify the performance, which does not affect the results much.


Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (19) ◽  
pp. 6409
Author(s):  
Belete Belayneh Negesse ◽  
Chang-Hwan Park ◽  
Seung-Hwan Lee ◽  
Seon-Woong Hwang ◽  
Jang-Mok Kim

The three-phase H7 inverter topology installs an additional power semiconductor switch to the positive or negative node of the DC-link for reducing the common-mode voltage (CMV) by disconnecting the inverter from the DC source during the zero-voltage vectors. The conventional CMV reduction method for the three-phase H7 inverter uses modified discontinuous pulse width modulation (MDPWM) and generates a switching signal for the additional switch using logical operations. However, the conventional method is unable to eliminate the CMV for the entire dwell time of the zero-voltage vectors. It only has the effect of reducing the CMV in a limited area of the space vector where the V7 zero voltage vector is applied. Therefore, this paper proposes an optimized modulation method that can reduce the CMV during the entire dwell time of zero-voltage vectors. The proposed method moves the switching patterns by adding an offset voltage to guarantee that only one kind of zero-voltage vector, V7, is applied in the system. It then turns off the seventh switch only during the zero-voltage vector to disconnect the inverter from the DC source. As a result, the CMV and the leakage current are attenuated for the entire dwell time of the zero-voltage vector. Simulation and experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed method.


Author(s):  
G. Prathiba ◽  
M. Santhi

This paper presents an analysis of the Reduced Switching Capacitor Digital-to-Analog Converter (RSC-DAC)-based low power Successive Approximation Register Analog to Digital Converter (SAR-ADC). The proposed structure involves the Low voltage Static D-Latch Comparator (LSD-LC) with pre-amplifier operators in two modes (Normal and Hold), the RSC-DAC switching energy, reduced by 93% contrast to the standard Charge Redistribution Switching Capacitor DAC (CRSC-DAC) method, and the Successive Approximation Register (SAR) control logic. The LSD-LC with pre-amplifier consists of a latch circuit and a pre-amplifier. The pre-amplifier is often used to eliminate the DC offset voltage and kickback noise without substantially weakening the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) to drive the main circuit while the latch is needed for comparison. The linearity parameters such as Integral Nonlinearity, Differential Nonlinearity and effect of parasitic capacitances of the RSC-DAC are analyzed and improved by the new approach named as Adaptive Random Code Generation (ARCG) Technique. The above overall design is implemented in 250-nm CMOS design of the TANNER-EDA tool, consuming 1.74-mW power at 60[Formula: see text]MS/s. The proposed structure has an INL and a DNL, respectively, of +0.18/[Formula: see text] LSB and +0.11/[Formula: see text]0.05 LSB.


Author(s):  
Jin-Wook Kim ◽  
Kyoung-Min Choo ◽  
Won-Sang Jeong ◽  
Yoon-Seong Lee ◽  
Junsin Yi ◽  
...  

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document