Dietary Risk
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0259144
James Webster ◽  
Catherine E. Rycroft ◽  
Darren C. Greenwood ◽  
Janet E. Cade

Aim To summarise the totality of evidence regarding dietary risk factors for hip fracture in adults, evaluating the quality of evidence, to provide recommendations for practice and further research. Design Systematic review of meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies. Eligibility criteria Systematic reviews with meta-analyses reporting summary risk estimates for associations between hip fracture incidence and dietary exposures including oral intake of a food, food group, beverage, or nutrient, or adherence to dietary patterns. Information sources Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library from inception until November 2020. Data synthesis The methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses was assessed using AMSTAR-2, and the quality of evidence for each association was assessed using GRADE. Results were synthesised descriptively. Results Sixteen systematic reviews were identified, covering thirty-four exposures, including dietary patterns (n = 2 meta-analyses), foods, food groups, or beverages (n = 16), macronutrients (n = 3), and micronutrients (n = 13). Identified meta-analyses included 6,282 to 3,730,424 participants with between 322 and 26,168 hip fractures. The methodological quality (AMSTAR-2) of all systematic reviews was low or critically low. The quality of evidence (GRADE) was low for an inverse association between hip fracture incidence and intake of fruits and vegetables combined (adjusted summary relative risk for higher vs lower intakes: 0.92 [95% confidence interval: 0.87 to 0.98]), and very low for the remaining thirty-three exposures. Conclusion Dietary factors may play a role in the primary prevention of hip fracture, but the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses was below international standards, and there was a lack of high-quality evidence. More long-term cohort studies reporting absolute risks and robust, well-conducted meta-analyses with dose-response information are needed before policy guidelines can be formed. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42020226190.

2021 ◽  
Syeda Nazish Ali ◽  
Nazia Rafique ◽  
Shazia Akhtar ◽  
Touqeer Taj ◽  
Farrakh Mehboob

Abstract European Union Reference Laboratory method for Fruits and Vegetable (EURL-FV-2010-M1) for the quantification of pesticide residues was verified for the determination of multiple pesticides residues in okra. The targeted pesticides were extracted using acetonitrile with citrate buffer salts followed by cleanup with primary secondary amine (PSA) and analyzed on LC-MS/MS. The recoveries for all the targeted pesticides were within an acceptable range of 70.1 - 116.6% and precision in terms of RSD was 0.3 - 18.1%, respectively. The limit of quantification ranged from 0.002 mg/kg for carbofuran to 0.5 mg/kg for α-cypermethrin. The status of pesticide residues in okra (n= 21) available to consumers in the main markets of Pakistan has been determined by using this verified method. Sixty-two percent of the tested samples were contaminated out of which three samples were non-compliant with European Union Maximum residue limits (EU-MRL). The pesticides violating the EU-MRL were bifenthrin, thiamethoxam, and triazophos. For all the detected pesticides, estimated daily intake (EDI) ranged between 7.39×10−6 and 1.78×10−4 mg/kg of body weight while the values of Health Index (HI) fluctuated between 8.9×10−5 and 1.8×10−2. Although, residues of some pesticides were reported to be non-compliant with EU-MRLs, yet the risk posed by these pesticides to human health was insignificant.

Toxics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 249
Sebastian Elgueta ◽  
Marcela Valenzuela ◽  
Marcela Fuentes ◽  
Pilar Ulloa ◽  
Cecilia Ramos ◽  

In recent years, the official authorities in Chile have reported transgressions in the maximum residue levels of pesticides in fresh vegetables. There is no official information about traceability, pesticide levels, and potential health risks. The aim of this study was to analyse pesticide residues and their corresponding dietary risk assessments in tomatoes from supermarkets in the Metropolitan Region. Pesticides were extracted using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe, QuEChERS method, and their concentrations were determined by using chromatography with HPLC-FL/UV and GC-MS/ECD/NPD, following the Analytical Quality Control and Method Validation Procedures for Pesticides Residues Analysis in Food and Feed, SANTE guide and ISO 17025:2017 standard. In addition, a dietary risk assessment was carried out by comparing Chilean data to international references. The results reported that 9% of the samples had pesticide residue levels above the maximum residue levels permitted in Chile. All the scenarios evaluated revealed the highest estimated daily intake and hazard quotients for methamidophos and chlorpyrifos. Both the active substances used were acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and were neurotoxic under chronic risk assessment. The results showed the highest chronic hazard index in the Chilean scenario for all age groups and genders. The evidence obtained revealed that methamidophos, methomyl, and chlorpyrifos should be restricted for their use in Chilean agriculture.

2021 ◽  
Ji-Young Lee ◽  
Hae in Cho ◽  
Sun ha Jee

Abstract Background: There have been inconsistencies in the evidence for a role of dietary risk factors in the development of breast cancer. In this study, we used a large-scale cohort (Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II [KCPS-II]) to examine the association between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in Korean women.Methods: The dietary patterns of 14,807 women from the KCPS-II were derived by factor analysis and 135 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed during the follow-up period. Cox proportional models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of breast cancer. Results: The following three major dietary factors were identified: “Korean dietary pattern” (high intake of Kimchi, vegetables, and rice); “Sweet dietary pattern” (high intake of soda and sugar); and “Western-like dietary pattern” (high intake of dairy products, eggs, oil, fruits, and bread). After adjusting for potential confounders, neither the Korean (HR for the highest compared with the lowest tertile, 1.04; 95% CI 0.53−2.06) nor the Sweet dietary patterns were associated with the risk of breast cancer. In contrast, the Western-like dietary pattern was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer with an HR (95% CI) of 1.01 (0.65−1.60) for the second tertile and 1.61 (1.04−2.50) for the third tertile as compared with the lowest tertile. After stratifying by menopausal status, these effects were only statistically significant among premenopausal women for the third tertile, compared with those in the bottom tertile (HR 1.69; 95% CI 1.06−2.68; p = 0.028). No significant association was observed between the Korean or Sweet dietary pattern and breast cancer among either pre- or postmenopausal women.Conclusions: Our findings revealed that a greater consumption of a Western-like diet was associated with an increased breast cancer risk and consequently offer a potential prevention strategy for Korean women.

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