Dietary fiber (DF) is one of the major classes of nutrients for humans. It is widely distributed in the edible parts of natural plants, with the cell wall being the main DF-containing structure. The DF content varies significantly in different plant species and organs, and the processing procedure can have a dramatic effect on the DF composition of plant-based foods. Given the considerable nutritional value of DF, a deeper understanding of DF in food plants, including its composition and biosynthesis, is fundamental to the establishment of a daily intake reference of DF and is also critical to molecular breeding programs for modifying DF content. In the past decades, plant cell wall biology has seen dramatic progress, and such knowledge is of great potential to be translated into DF-related food science research and may provide future research directions for improving the health benefits of food crops. In this review, to spark interdisciplinary discussions between food science researchers and plant cell wall biologists, we focus on a specific category of DF—cell wall carbohydrates. We first summarize the content and composition of carbohydrate DF in various plant-based foods, and then discuss the structure and biosynthesis mechanism of each carbohydrate DF category, in particular the respective biosynthetic enzymes. Health impacts of DF are highlighted, and finally, future directions of DF research are also briefly outlined.
Introduction. Fermented milk beverages with various vegetable additives expand the range of functional foods with probiotics, vitamins, and minerals. The research objective was to develop a new technology for fermented milk drinks fortified with soy protein.
Study objects and methods. Heat-treated cow’s milk with Direct Vat Set bacterial starter served as the control sample, while the experimental samples featured fermented milk fortified with soy additives. The soy protein ingredient was obtained from powdered sprouted soybean. Soybeans were pre-germinated in a thermostat at 26°C for 24 h and blanched with steam for 15 min. After that, 1–9% of the soy substance was added to pasteurized milk and fermented at 38–40°C for 6–8 h. The resulting sample was tested for quality indicators and physicochemical composition.
Results and discussion. The best sensory properties belonged to the sample with 5% mass fraction of the soy additive. As a result, the soy-fortified beverages entitled Bifivit and Immunovit had a better nutritional value: protein – by 1.92 and 1.79 g, fat – by 0.77 and 0.75 g, vitamin E – by 0.16 mg, choline – by 23.82 mg, potassium – by 149 mg, phosphorus – by 19 and 22 mg, calcium – by 25 and 24 mg, magnesium – by 22 and 23 mg, respectively. One portion (100 g) of these drinks contained over 15% of recommended daily intake of protein, vitamin B2, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus. The content of lactic acid and bifidobacteria remained above the norm (1×108) both in fresh products and by the end of their shelf life.
Conclusion. The article introduces a technology of new functional soy-fortified fermented milk drinks with improved chemical and sensory properties.
Objectives: The study was designed to estimate daily salt intake, its discretionary use in healthy individuals and to validate three common methods for salt estimation in Pakistani population.
Methodology: Information on demography and discretionary salt use was collected from healthy adults (>18 years) along with a blood sample, spot and 24 hour urine samples. Sodium, chloride, potassium levels and serum creatinine were measured using standard methods. For daily salt estimation, three common methods i.e. INTERSALT, Tanaka and Kawasaki were validated for their applicability in local settings.
Results: Overall 24 h sodium excretion was 158 mmol/l indicating intake of 8.64 (±4.43) grams salt per day which was significantly associated with male gender (p. <0.004) and adding salt during cooking (p. <0.0001). Most (73%) of the participants know about hazardous effects of high salt intake, however, only 25% consider important to lower salt intake. None of three methods i.e. INTERSALT (bias: -19.64; CCC -0.79), Tanaka (bias: 167.35; CCC -0.37) and Kawasaki (bias: -42.49, CCC -0.79) showed any agreement between measured and estimated 24 hour sodium.
Conclusion: Daily intake of salt was high which increases the risk for hypertension. Comparison of methods for estimation revealed that none of the three methods could be used for estimating daily intake of salt in local settings of Pakistan.
This study provides the data on dietary exposure of Serbian children to nitrites and phosphorus from meat products by combining individual consumption data with available analytical data of meat products. A total of 2603 and 1900 commercially available meat products were categorized into seven groups and analysed for nitrite and phosphorous content. The highest mean levels of nitrite content, expressed as NaNO2, were found in finely minced cooked sausages (40.25 ± 20.37 mg/kg), followed by canned meat (34.95 ± 22.12 mg/kg) and coarsely minced cooked sausages (32.85 ± 23.25 mg/kg). The EDI (estimated daily intake) of nitrites from meat products, calculated from a National Food Consumption Survey in 576 children aged 1–9 years, indicated that the Serbian children population exceeded the nitrite ADI (acceptable daily intake) proposed by EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) in 6.4% of children, with a higher proportion in 1–3-year-old participants. The mean phosphorus concentration varied from 2.71 ± 1.05 g/kg to 6.12 ± 1.33 g/kg in liver sausage and pate and smoked meat products, respectively. The EDI of phosphorus from meat products was far below the ADI proposed by EFSA, indicating that the use of phosphorus additives in Serbian meat products is generally in line with legislation.
Brassica by-products are a source of natural bioactive molecules such as glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, with potential applications in the nutraceutical and functional food industries. However, the effects of oral sub-chronic exposure to broccoli by-product flour (BF) have not yet been evaluated. The objective of this pilot study was to analyse the effects of BF intake in the physiological parameters of FVB/N mice fed a 6.7% BF-supplemented diet for 21 days. Glucosinolates and their derivatives were also quantified in plasma and urine. BF supplementation significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the accumulation of perirenal adipose tissue. Furthermore, mice supplemented with BF showed significantly lower (p < 0.01) microhematocrit values than control animals, but no impact on the general genotoxicological status nor relevant toxic effects on the liver and kidney were observed. Concerning hepatic and renal antioxidant response, BF supplementation induced a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels. In BF-supplemented mice, plasma analysis revealed the presence of the glucosinolates glucobrassicin and glucoerucin, and the isothiocyanates sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol. Overall, these results show that daily intake of a high dose of BF during three weeks is safe, and enables the bioavailability of beneficial glucosinolates and isothiocyanates. These results allow further testing of the benefits of this BF in animal models of disease, knowing that exposure of up to 6.7% BF does not present relevant toxicity.
Today microplastics (MPs) have received worldwide attention as an emerging environmental pollution which is one of the four major global environmental threat and health hazard to human as well. Unfortunately, MPs have been founded in the all environments and media include air, water resources, sediments, and soil. It should not be forgotten MPs have also been detected in food and processing products like tuna. MPs can be ingested by marine organisms such as zooplankton, fish and birds. Accumulation and distribution of MPs by commercially important aquatic organisms is expected to lead to greater exposure risk for human populations with possible adverse effects over time. The aim of this work was to review the published literature regarding the contamination of commercial fish muscle for human consumption. Furthermore, a short revision of the environmental contamination and human health effects by MPs are included. We also estimated human daily intake considering the worldwide contamination of commercial fish muscle ranged from 0.016 items/g muscle of fish to 6.06 items/g muscle of fish. MPs have been found in 56.5% of the commercial fish samples analysed here. As fish is used in human food table across the word, they constitute a long-term exposure route for all humans and raise the concern about the potential public health risk.
Malnutrition is closely related to the outcome of disease treatment, especially in digestive cancer surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional condition of pre-operative patients with upper digestive cancers (including stomach and oesophagus) at the Department of General Surgery, Bach Mai Hospital in 2016. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive analysis of 76 malignancies of the upper gastrointestinal tract with surgical treatments. The results revealed that the weight loss rate of hospitalized patients with gastric cancer and esophageal cancer was 76.6% and 66.7%, respectively. The rate of weight loss above 10% of body weight was 19.7%. The prevalence of chronic energy deficit was 29.9%. The risk of malnutrition according to SGA was 77.6%, of which mild to moderate and severe was 67.2% and 10.4%, respectively. The rate of low blood albumin level (less than 35 g/L) was 36.5%. The average net nutritional value was 1146.3 ± 592.7 Kcal (range 246.7 – 3653.5), which equals to 55.7% of the necessary daily intake. Protein, lipid, and glucid contents reached 73.4%, 57.8%, and 52.1% of the recommended levels, respectively. Conclusion: malnutrition was still prevalent among patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal cancer surgery, and pre-operative nutritional status does not achieve recommended levels.
Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cr) are some of the most toxic elements that can bioaccumulate from sources linked to human activities, such as industry and agriculture. This study quantifies the concentrations of several heavy metals in caged tilapia found in Ghana’s Volta Basin and assesses the associated health risks. The levels of heavy metals in the tissues of Oreochromis niloticus from three cage farms (N = 52) were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). The implication for human health was assessed using several risk assessment techniques. Fe (50.11 ± 10.22 mg/kg) and Cr (0.31 ± 0.07 mg/kg) had the highest and lowest accumulated metal concentrations, respectively. Heavy metal concentrations in tilapia tissue from fish farms were ordered as follows: Fe > Mn > Zn > Ni > Cr (farm A), Fe > Zn > Ni > Mn (farm B), and Fe > Mn > Zn > Ni > Cr (farm C). All metals had an estimated daily intake (EDI) below the threshold, and mean differences between sample farms were not statistically significant. Similarly, the values of target hazard quotients (HQs) and hazard indices (HIs) were less than one. According to the risk assessment results, eating tilapia from farms posed no risk to human health. The presence of Mn, Fe, and Ni concentrations above the maximum level in the fish, on the other hand, suggests that they may affect fish health.
Citrus jabara (CJ) is a rare citrus fruit that used to grow naturally only in the southern part of the Kii Peninsula in Japan. Human intervention studies with oral intake of CJ fruit have shown its anti-allergic effects, but the testing method was a pre-post comparison study. In this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group interventional study to evaluate the volume-dependent effects of oral intake of CJ fruit peel powder (Japanese Patent No. 5,323,127) on nasal and eye allergy-like symptoms. Ninety healthy adults were allocated to three groups and given test foods containing 1,000, 500, and 0 mg of CJ peel powder, with one packet per day for 4 weeks. After excluding those who dropped out or deviated from the study protocol, 73 were included in the efficacy analysis and 86 in the safety analysis. The high-dose group (1,000 mg/day) was significantly lower than the placebo group in the scores of “nasal and eye symptoms” at week 4, and “blocked nose” at weeks 2 and 4 in the evaluation of question I of Japanese Rhino-conjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (JRQLQ No. 1). The changes in scores (difference from the pre-observation period) on the Nasal and Eye Symptom Questionnaire showed a dose-dependent reduction in rhinorrhea. In the safety evaluation, there were no significant differences in examinations of physiology, hematology, and blood biochemistry between the groups, and no adverse events attributable to the test foods were observed. These results suggest that intake of CJ peel powder can alleviate allergy-like symptoms.
Bioenergetic capacity is critical to adapt the high energy demand of the heart to circadian oscillations and diseased states. Glucocorticoids regulate the circadian cycle of energy metabolism, but little is known about how circadian timing of exogenous glucocorticoid dosing directly regulates cardiac bioenergetics through the primary receptor of these drugs, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). While chronic once-daily intake of glucocorticoids promotes metabolic stress and heart failure, we recently discovered that intermittent once-weekly dosing of exogenous glucocorticoids promoted muscle metabolism and heart function in dystrophic mice. However, the effects of glucocorticoid intermittence on heart failure beyond muscular dystrophy remain unknown. Here we investigated the extent to which circadian time of dosing regulates the cardiac-autonomous effects of the glucocorticoid prednisone in conditions of single pulse or chronic intermittent dosing. In WT mice, we found that prednisone improved cardiac content of NAD+ and ATP with light-phase dosing (ZT0), while the effects were blocked by dark-phase dosing (ZT12). The effects on mitochondrial function were cardiomyocyte-autonomous, as shown by inducible cardiomyocyte-restricted GR ablation, and depended on an intact activating clock complex, as shown by hearts from BMAL1-KO mice. Conjugating time-of-dosing with chronic intermittence, we found that once-weekly light-phase prednisone improved metabolism and function in heart after myocardial injury. Our study identifies cardiac-autonomous mechanisms through which circadian time and chronic intermittence reconvert glucocorticoid drugs to bioenergetic boosters for the heart.