Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 708
Author(s):  
Maranda Thompson ◽  
Arzu Ulu ◽  
Ana G. Yuil-Valdes ◽  
Maheswari Mukherjee ◽  
Melissa Thoene ◽  
...  

Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are important for neonatal development and health. One mechanism by which omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids exert their effects is through their metabolism into oxylipins and specialized pro-resolving mediators. However, the influence of oxylipins on fetal growth is not well understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify oxylipins present in maternal and umbilical cord plasma and investigate their relationship with infant growth. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify oxylipin levels in plasma collected at the time of delivery. Spearman’s correlations highlighted significant correlations between metabolite levels and infant growth. They were then adjusted for maternal obesity (normal body mass index (BMI: ≤30 kg/m2) vs. obese BMI (>30 kg/m2) and smoking status (never vs. current/former smoker) using linear regression modeling. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Our study demonstrated a diverse panel of oxylipins from the lipoxygenase pathway present at the time of delivery. In addition, both omega-3 and omega-6 oxylipins demonstrated potential influences on the birth length and weight percentiles. The oxylipins present during pregnancy may influence fetal growth and development, suggesting potential metabolites to be used as biomarkers for infant outcomes.


Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 21
Author(s):  
Hsin-Chang Chen ◽  
Jung-Wei Chang ◽  
Yi-Chen Sun ◽  
Wan-Ting Chang ◽  
Po-Chin Huang

The development of a rapid analytical approach for determining levels of antibacterial agents, plasticizers, and ultraviolet filters in biosamples is crucial for individual exposure assessment. We developed an analytical method to determine the levels of four parabens—bisphenols A (BPA) and its analogs, triclosan (TCS), triclocarban, and benzophenone-3 (BP-3)—in human urine. We further measured the levels of these chemicals in children and adolescents. We used a supported liquid extraction (SLE) technique coupled with an isotope-dilution ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-UPLC-MS/MS) method to assess the detection performance for these chemicals. Forty-one urine samples from 13 children and 28 adolescents were assessed to demonstrate the capability and feasibility of our method. An acceptable recovery (75.6–102.4%) and matrix effect (precision < 14.2%) in the three-level spiked artificial urine samples were achieved, and good performance of the validated ID-UPLC-MS/MS method regarding linearity, limits of detection, and quantitation was achieved. The within-run and between-run accuracy and precision also demonstrated the sensitivity and stability of this analytical method, applied after SLE. We concluded that the ID-UPLC-MS/MS method with SLE pretreatment is a valuable analytical method for the investigation of urinary antibacterial agents, plasticizers, and ultraviolet filters in humans, useful for human biomonitoring.


Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 132
Author(s):  
Wei Wang ◽  
Qiang Tu ◽  
Rongrong Chen ◽  
Pincang Lv ◽  
Yanqing Xu ◽  
...  

Plant polyploidization is frequently associated with changes in nutrient contents. However, the possible contribution of metabolites to this change has not been investigated by characterizing the metabolite contents of diploid and tetraploid forms of rice (Oryza sativa L.). We compared the metabolites of a group of diploid–tetraploid japonica brown rice and a group of diploid–tetraploid indica brown rice based on liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 401 metabolites were identified; of these, between the two diploid–tetraploid groups, 180 showed opposite expression trends, but 221 showed the same trends (147 higher abundance vs. 74 lower abundance). Hierarchical cluster analysis of differential metabolites between diploid and tetraploid species showed a clear grouping pattern, in which the expression abundance of lipids, amino acids and derivatives, and phenolic acids increased in tetraploids. Further analysis revealed that the lipids in tetraploid rice increased significantly, especially unsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids. This study provides further basis for understanding the changes in rice nutritional quality following polyploidization and may serve as a new theoretical reference for breeding eutrophic or functional rice varieties via polyploidization.


Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 33
Author(s):  
Kristina Kvrgić ◽  
Tina Lešić ◽  
Natalija Džafić ◽  
Jelka Pleadin

As filter feeders, bivalves and ascidians can accumulate contaminants present in the environment and pass them on to higher food chain levels as vectors. The consumption of bivalves contaminated with the potent neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) can cause amnesic shellfish poisoning in humans. The aim of this study was to determine seasonal differences in occurrence and accumulation of this phycotoxin in European oysters (Ostrea edulis Linnaeus, 1758) (n = 46), Queen scallops (Aequipecten opercularis Linnaeus, 1758) (n = 53), and edible ascidians of the Microcosmus spp. (n = 107), originating from the same harvesting area in the Northern Adriatic Sea. The quantification was performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) preceded by derivatization with dansyl chloride. DA was found in very low concentrations throughout the year, with a maximum value of 810 μg/kg in Queen scallops. This study reveals differences in the occurrence and accumulation of DA between Queen scallops and the other two investigated species (oysters and ascidians) and the highest concentrations during the colder part of the year. Even though DA was detected in all of them, Queen scallops showed higher DA accumulation compared to the other two (p < 0.001), hence representing a sentinel species suitable for the monitoring of DA level in seafood.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Robert N Helsley ◽  
Tatsunori Miyata ◽  
Anagha Kadam ◽  
Varadharajan Venkateshwari ◽  
Naseer Sangwan ◽  
...  

Background:There is mounting evidence that microbes resident in the human intestine contribute to diverse alcohol-associated liver diseases (ALD) including the most deadly form known as alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH). However, mechanisms by which gut microbes synergize with excessive alcohol intake to promote liver injury are poorly understood. Furthermore, whether drugs that selectively target gut microbial metabolism can improve ALD has never been tested. Methods: We used liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to quantify the levels of microbe and host choline co-metabolites in healthy controls and AH patients, finding elevated levels of the microbial metabolite trimethylamine (TMA) in AH. In subsequent studies, we treated mice with non-lethal bacterial choline TMA lyase (CutC/D) inhibitors to blunt gut microbedependent production of TMA in the context of chronic ethanol administration. Indices of liver injury were quantified by complementary RNA sequencing, biochemical, and histological approaches. In addition, we examined the impact of ethanol consumption and TMA lyase inhibition on gut microbiome structure via 16S rRNA sequencing. Results: We show the gut microbial choline metabolite trimethylamine (TMA) is elevated in AH patients and correlates with reduced hepatic expression of the TMA oxygenase flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3). Provocatively, we find that small molecule inhibition of gut microbial CutC/D activity protects mice from ethanol-induced liver injury. CutC/D inhibitor-driven improvement in ethanol-induced liver injury is associated with distinct reorganization of the gut microbiome and host liver transcriptome. Conclusions: The microbial metabolite TMA is elevated in patients with AH, and inhibition of TMA production from gut microbes can protect mice from ethanol-induced liver injury.


2022 ◽  
Vol 60 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
Valerija Šimunec ◽  
Rea Bertoša ◽  
Anita Šporec ◽  
Igor Lukić ◽  
Diana Nejašmić ◽  
...  

Research background. Baranjski kulen is one of the most popular fermented meat sausages originating from Croatia. It has protected geographical indication, and is traditionally produced in the Baranja region of Croatia. Kulenova seka is a fermented sausage very similar to Baranjski kulen, but it has a different caliber and consequently, a shorter time of production. In recent decades, due to the high demand and popularity of these products, industrially produced Baranjski kulen and Kulenova seka have become available on the market. This work aims to identify specific characteristics of traditional and industrial sausages, Baranjski kulen and Kulenova seka on proteome, peptidome and metabolome level which could potentially lead to better optimization of the industrial production process in order to obtain an equivalent to the traditional product. Experimental approach. Protein profiles of Baranjski kulen and Kulenova seka (traditional and industrial) were analysed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by differential display analysis and protein identification using mass spectrometry. Peptidomics profiling analysis was performed via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Furthermore, aroma profiles were investigated via headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results and conclusions. The major identified characteristics of each product were: industrial Baranjski kulen - specific degradation of MYH1 and TITIN, overabundance of stress-related proteins and increased phenylalanine degradation; traditional Baranjski kulen - decreased concentration of phenylalanine and overabundance of ALDOA and CAH3; industrial Kulenova seka - specific MYH4 and HBA degradation process; traditional Kulenova seka - overabundance of DPYD and MYL1, degradation of ALBU and MYG, decreased concentrations of almost all free amino acids and increased amounts of smoke derived volatile compounds. Novelty and scientific contribution. In this preliminary communication, the first insights into protein degradation processes and generation of peptides, free amino acids and aroma compounds of industrial and traditional Baranjski kulen and Kulenova seka are presented. Although further research is needed to draw general conclusions, the specific profile of proteins, peptides, amino acids, and volatile compounds represents the first step in the industrial production of sausages that meet the characteristics of traditional flavour.


Toxins ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 22
Author(s):  
Jensen Cherewyk ◽  
Taylor Grusie-Ogilvie ◽  
Barry Blakley ◽  
Ahmad Al-Dissi

Ergot sclerotia effect cereal crops intended for consumption. Ergot alkaloids within ergot sclerotia are assessed to ensure contamination is below safety standards established for human and animal health. Ergot alkaloids exist in two configurations, the R and S-epimers. It is important to quantify both configurations. The objective of this study was to validate a new ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for quantification of six R and six S-epimers of ergot alkaloids in hard red spring wheat utilizing deuterated lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-D3) as an internal standard. Validation parameters such as linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), matrix effects, recovery and precision were investigated. For the 12 epimers analyzed, low LOD and LOQ values were observed, allowing for the sensitive detection of ergot epimers. Matrix effects ranged between 101–113% in a representative wheat matrix. Recovery was 68.3–119.1% with an inter-day precision of <24% relative standard deviation (RSD). The validation parameters conform with previous studies and exhibit differences between the R and S-epimers which has been rarely documented. This new sensitive method allows for the use of a new internal standard and can be incorporated and applied to research or diagnostic laboratories.


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