The accumulation of antimicrobial residues in edible animal products and aquaculture products could pose health concerns to unsuspecting consumers. Hence, this study aimed to develop a validated method for simultaneous quantification of chloramphenicol (CAP), thiamphenicol (TAP), florfenicol (FF), and florfenicol amine (FFA) in beef, pork, chicken, shrimp, eel, and flatfish using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Primary-secondary amine (PSA) and MgSO4 were used for sample purification. The analytes were separated on a reversed-phase analytical column. The coefficients of determination for the linear matrix-matched calibration curves were ≥0.9941. Recovery rates ranged between 64.26 and 116.51% for the four analytes with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ≤ 18.05%. The calculated limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.005–3.1 and 0.02–10.4 μg/kg, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for monitoring samples obtained from local markets in Seoul, Republic of Korea. The target residues were not detected in any tested matrix. The designed method was versatile, sensitive, and proved suitable for quantifying residues in animal-derived products.
AbstractMonoamine oxidase (MAO) is a key enzyme responsible for the degradation of neurotransmitters and trace amines. MAO has two subtypes (MAO-A and MAO-B) that are encoded by different genes. In the brain, MAO-B is highly expressed in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT); however, its substrate in PVT remains unclear. To identify the MAO-B substrate in PVT, we generated Maob knockout (KO) mice and measured five candidate substrates (i.e., noradrenaline, dopamine, 3-methoxytyramine, serotonin, and phenethylamine [PEA]) by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We showed that only PEA levels were markedly elevated in the PVT of Maob KO mice. To exclude the influence of peripheral MAO-B deficiency, we developed brain-specific Maob KO mice, finding that PEA in the PVT was increased in brain-specific Maob KO mice, whereas the extent of PEA increase was less than that in global Maob KO mice. Given that plasma PEA levels were elevated in global KO mice, but not in brain–specific KO mice, and that PEA passes across the blood–brain barrier, the substantial accumulation of PEA in the PVT of Maob KO mice was likely due to the increase in plasma PEA. These data suggest that PEA is a substrate of MAO-B in the PVT as well as other tissues.