Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have suggested that there is a functional reorganization of brain areas in patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Recently, graph theory analysis has brought a new understanding of the functional connectome and topological features in central neural system diseases. However, little is known about the functional network topology changes in SNHL patients, especially in infants. In this study, 34 infants with profound bilateral congenital SNHL and 28 infants with normal hearing aged 11–36 months were recruited. No difference was found in small-world parameters and network efficiency parameters. Differences in global and nodal topologic organization, hub distribution, and whole-brain functional connectivity were explored using graph theory analysis. Both normal-hearing infants and SNHL infants exhibited small-world topology. Furthermore, the SNHL group showed a decreased nodal degree in the bilateral thalamus. Six hubs in the SNHL group and seven hubs in the normal-hearing group were identified. The left middle temporal gyrus was a hub only in the SNHL group, while the right parahippocampal gyrus and bilateral temporal pole were hubs only in the normal-hearing group. Functional connectivity between auditory regions and motor regions, between auditory regions and default-mode-network (DMN) regions, and within DMN regions was found to be decreased in the SNHL group. These results indicate a functional reorganization of brain functional networks as a result of hearing loss. This study provides evidence that functional reorganization occurs in the early stage of life in infants with profound bilateral congenital SNHL from the perspective of complex networks.
(1) Background: A retrospective clinical study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of different pharmacological and non-pharmacological regimens for treating sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). (2) Methods: Adult patients (n = 130) diagnosed with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) and hospitalized between 2015 and 2020 were enrolled in this study. Depending on the treatment regimen applied, patients were divided into five groups. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (i) hearing loss of sudden onset; (ii) hearing loss of at least 30 dB at three consecutive frequencies; (iii) unilateral hearing loss; (iv) age above 18 years. Exclusion criteria were as follows: (i) no follow-up audiogram; (ii) bilateral hearing loss; (iii) recognized alternative diagnosis such as tumor, disorder of inner ear fluids, infection or inflammation, autoimmune disease, malformation, hematological disease, dialysis-dependent renal failure, postdural puncture syndrome, gene-related syndrome, mitochondrial disease; and (iv) age below 18 years. (3) Results: Complete recovery was found in 14% of patients (18/130) and marked improvement was found in 6% (8/130), giving an overall success rate of 20%. The best results were obtained in the second group (i.e., patients given intratympanic glucocorticoid + prolonged orally administered glucocorticoid) where the success rate was 28%. In general, the older the patient, the smaller the improvement in hearing, a correlation that was statistically significant. (4) Conclusions: In treating SSNHL, the highest rate of hearing recovery—28%—was in the group of patients given intratympanic corticoid plus prolonged treatment with orally administered glucocorticoid.
In the clinical setting, the pathophysiology of sensorineural hearing loss is poorly defined and there are currently no diagnostic tests available to differentiate between subtypes. This often leaves patients with generalized treatment options such as steroids, hearing aids, or cochlear implantation. The gold standard for localizing disease is direct biopsy or imaging of the affected tissue; however, the inaccessibility and fragility of the cochlea make these techniques difficult. Thus, the establishment of an indirect biopsy, a sampling of inner fluids, is needed to advance inner ear diagnostics and allow for the development of novel therapeutics for inner ear disease. A promising source is perilymph, an inner ear liquid that bathes multiple structures critical to sound transduction. Intraoperative perilymph sampling via the round window membrane of the cochlea has been successfully used to profile the proteome, metabolome, and transcriptome of the inner ear and is a potential source of biomarker discovery. Despite its potential to provide insight into inner ear pathologies, human perilymph sampling continues to be controversial and is currently performed only in conjunction with a planned procedure where the inner ear is opened. Here, we review the safety of procedures in which the inner ear is opened, highlight studies where perilymph analysis has advanced our knowledge of inner ear diseases, and finally propose that perilymph sampling could be done as a stand-alone procedure, thereby advancing our ability to accurately classify sensorineural hearing loss.
Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) gene mutation, which is related to severe hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis, is rarely reported globally.
We report a case of a new MRPS2 gene mutation in a Chinese girl who presented with hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis. A homozygous C.412C > G variant that could cause complex oxidative phosphorylation deficiency and had not been reported before was identified. The clinical manifestations included recurrent vomiting, hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, sensorineural hearing loss, and gall bladder calculi. Hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis improved after the administration of sugary liquid and supportive treatments.
Recurrent hypoglycemia with lactic acidosis and sensorineural hearing loss should lead to suspicion of mitochondrial defects and the early refinement of genetic tests.
Enterovirus has been described as a cause of aseptic meningitis in humorally immunosuppressed patients.
A 67-year-old female with a history of mantle cell lymphoma on rituximab therapy presented with subacute hepatitis, myalgias, and sensorineural hearing loss several months after an initial febrile illness. She was diagnosed with enterovirus infection by CSF PCR as a unifying etiology of her presentation, representing an unusual presentation of disease.
Discussion and conclusions
This patient’s unique presentation and clinical course presents important implications in the care of similarly immunosuppressed patients with cryptic complaints.