Sensorineural Hearing Loss
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jack Shohet ◽  
Jacqueline Bibee

Totally implantable active middle ear implants (AMEI) provide full-time hearing amplification to those with moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss. While technology in conventional hearing aids (CHA) has advanced greatly, limitations remain for people with active lifestyles, limited vision or dexterity, and hearing aid fit issues. Furthermore, direct-drive properties of AMEI are thought to provide those with inefficient middle ear transfer functions a distinct advantage in delivering prescribed sound to the cochlea, ultimately improving speech understanding with less distortion. AMEI safety, stability, and efficacy outcomes are well documented and fitting strategies continue to improve. Recent studies show how simple aided speech testing can help predict whether a patient struggling with CHA may instead benefit from an AMEI. Totally implantable AMEI continue to be a viable option for patients who cannot or will not utilize traditional hearing aids.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Lingna Guo ◽  
Wei Cao ◽  
Yuguang Niu ◽  
Shuangba He ◽  
Renjie Chai ◽  

Inner ear hair cells (HCs) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are the core components of the auditory system. However, they are vulnerable to genetic defects, noise exposure, ototoxic drugs and aging, and loss or damage of HCs and SGNs results in permanent hearing loss due to their limited capacity for spontaneous regeneration in mammals. Many efforts have been made to combat hearing loss including cochlear implants, HC regeneration, gene therapy, and antioxidant drugs. Here we review the role of autophagy in sensorineural hearing loss and the potential targets related to autophagy for the treatment of hearing loss.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Jong-Yeup Kim ◽  
Suehyun Lee ◽  
Jaehun Cha ◽  
Gilmyeong Son ◽  
Dong-Kyu Kim

AbstractSeveral studies have demonstrated the harmful effects of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the audiovestibular system. Through a time-to-event analysis, we aimed to compare the association of CKD with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL), and Ménière’s disease against a control population without CKD. We used a total of 1,025,340 patients from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database from 2002 to 2013. The CKD group (n = 2572) included patients diagnosed with CKD more than three times between January 2003 and December 2005. The non-CKD group (n = 5144) consisted of two patients without CKD for every patient with CKD. Each patient was monitored until December 2013. We calculated the incidence, survival rate, and hazards ratio (HR) of SSNHL and Ménière’s disease. In the CKD group, the incidence of SSNHL and Ménière’s disease was 1.39 and 3.64 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Patients with CKD showed an adjusted HR of 2.15 and 1.45 for SSNHL and Ménière’s disease, respectively. Middle-aged patients with CKD were associated with a higher incidence of developing SSNHL and Ménière’s disease than those without CKD. Female patients with CKD had a higher risk of developing SSNHL; however, there was no significant difference in the risk of Ménière’s disease in patients with CKD according to sex. Our findings suggest that CKD is associated with an increased incidence of SSNHL and Ménière’s disease. Therefore, audiovestibular surveillance should be considered in patients with CKD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Nobuyoshi Tsuzuki ◽  
Koichiro Wasano ◽  
Naoki Oishi ◽  
Ko Hentona ◽  
Marie Shimanuki ◽  

AbstractThe cause of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (idiopathic SSNHL)—diagnosed after excluding other causes of hearing loss, such as SSNHL associated with vestibular schwannoma (VS)—is unknown. The presumed pathogenesis of idiopathic SSNHL includes circulatory disorders (e.g., cochlear infarction). We tested the hypothesis that patients with SSNHL who are at high stroke risk will have a lower rate of VS compared to those with low stroke risk. The rationale is that the primary cause of SSNHL in patients with high stroke risk might be a circulatory disturbance. We conducted a retrospective study in six hospitals. Our sampling of SSNHL patients included those diagnosed with idiopathic SSNHL and VS-associated SSNHL. SSNHL patients who had a head MRI were stratified by severity of hearing loss and evaluated for differences in the detection rate of VS between the high-scoring CHADS2 (CHADS2-H-), an index of stroke risk, and low-scoring CHADS2 (CHADS2-L-) groups. We identified 916 patients who met the inclusion criteria. For severe hearing loss, the CHADS2-H group had a significantly lower rate of VS than the CHADS2-L group (OR 0 [95% CI 0.00–0.612]; P = 0.007). These results indirectly support the hypothesis that a primary cause of severe idiopathic SSNHL in those at high risk of stroke might be a circulatory disorder.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 524-536
Davide Brotto ◽  
Flavia Sorrentino ◽  
Roberta Cenedese ◽  
Irene Avato ◽  
Roberto Bovo ◽  

Inner ear malformations are present in 20% of patients with sensorineural hearing loss. Although the first descriptions date to the 18th century, in recent years the knowledge about these conditions has experienced terrific improvement. Currently, most of these conditions have a rehabilitative option. Much less is known about the etiology of these anomalies. In particular, the evolution of genetics has provided new data about the possible relationship between inner ear malformations and genetic anomalies. In addition, in syndromic condition, the well-known presence of sensorineural hearing loss can now be attributed to the presence of an inner ear anomaly. In some cases, the presence of these abnormalities should be considered as a characteristic feature of the syndrome. The present paper aims to summarize the available knowledge about the possible relationships between inner ear malformations and genetic mutations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Stella Chin-Shaw Tsai ◽  
Yi-Chao Hsu ◽  
Jung-Nien Lai ◽  
Ruey-Hwang Chou ◽  
Hueng-Chuen Fan ◽  

Abstract Background The association between exposure to air pollution and sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) has not been extensively discussed in the literature. Therefore, we conducted this nationwide study to evaluate the risk of SSNHL in Taiwanese residents with exposure to air pollution. Methods We enrolled subjects aged older than 20 years with no history of SSNHL from 1998 to 2010, and followed up until developing SSNHL, withdrawn from the National Health Insurance program, and the end of the database (2011/12/31). The air quality data are managed by Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. The annual concentrations of PM2.5, SO2, CO, NO, and NO2 from 1998 to 2010 were classified into the three levels according to tertiles. We calculated the annual average of pollutants from baseline until the end of the study, and classified into tertiles. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) was estimated by using the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results When considered continuous air pollutants concentration, subjects who exposed with higher concentration of CO (aHR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.50–3.11), NO (aHR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), and NO2 (aHR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.04) developing significant higher risk of SSNHL. When classified air pollutants concentration into low, moderate and high level by tertiles, and selected low level as reference, patients exposed with moderate (aHR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.20–2.04) or high level (aHR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.01–1.75) of PM2.5 showed significant higher risk of developing SSNHL. Conclusion This study indicated an increased risk of SSNHL in residents with long-term exposure to air pollution. Nevertheless, further experimental, and clinical studies are needed to validate the study findings.

2021 ◽  
pp. 014556132110425
Trong-Zong Chen ◽  
Bi-Hua Cheng ◽  
Hsiao-Yun Hu ◽  
Chia-Chi Chang ◽  
Shu-Yi Lin ◽  

Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the association between atrial fibrillation (AF) and sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Methods: This study was conducted by searching the longitudinal health insurance database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program for relevant information from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2011. Patients with AF were matched with non-AF controls with a 1:1 strategy according to propensity scores. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the risk of SSNHL. Results: In total, 14 698 patients with AF were matched with the same number of non-AF patients as controls. After propensity score matching, the use of antiplatelet or anticoagulation medications and the occurrence of SSNHL were found to have a significant difference between AF and non-AF patients. The occurrence of SSNHL was found to be higher in men, those of 45 to 74 years old, and patients with hypertension in both AF and non-AF groups. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that male gender, age between 45 and 74 years, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension are risk factors for SSNHL. The use of aspirin was found to reduce the rate of SSNHL (odds ratio [OR]: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.49-0.94, P = .019), but AF was not found to be a risk factor for SSNHL (OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.64-1.23, P = .467). Conclusion: The association between AF and SSNHL is not significant.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ming Li ◽  
Yangming Leng ◽  
Bo Liu

Background: By examining the clinical features and results of video head impulse test (vHIT) and caloric tests in patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) presenting with vertigo, we aimed to investigate the function of angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and its clinical implications.Methods: Nine patients with EVA manifesting with vertigo were enrolled. The medical history, audiological examination, imaging, and the results of the caloric test and the vHIT were analyzed.Results: Of the nine patients with EVA (eight bilateral and one unilateral case), five were pediatric cases. All 17 ears exhibited sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Enlarged vestibular aqueduct patients can present with recurrent (seven cases) or single (two cases) vertigo attack, trauma-induced (two cases), or spontaneous (seven cases) vertigo. Diminished caloric responses were observed in 77.8% (7/9) of the patients (four cases unilaterally and three bilaterally), while unilateral abnormal vHIT results in 11.1% (1/9) patients. Abnormal caloric and normal horizontal vHIT responses were found in 66.7% (6/9) of EVA patients.Conclusions: Vestibular manifestations in EVA are diverse. Enlarged vestibular aqueduct patients with vertigo can present with a reduced caloric response and normal horizontal vHIT, and this pattern of angular VOR impairment was also found in other hydropic ear diseases.

BMC Neurology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Tanya J. Lehky ◽  
Paul Sackstein ◽  
Deborah Tamura ◽  
Martha Quezado ◽  
Tianxia Wu ◽  

Abstract Background Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder with defective DNA nucleotide excision repair and associated with a high frequency of skin cancer. Approximately 25% of patients develop progressive neurological degeneration. Complementation groups XP-A and XP-D are most frequently associated with neurological disorders. Design/methods This is a retrospective review of patients with XP who were evaluated at NIH from 1986 to 2015 and had nerve conduction studies (NCS). In the complementation groups with peripheral neuropathy, further comparisons of the NCS were made with audiological, brain imaging, neuropsychological assessments that were also performed on most of the patients. Limited neuropathology of XP-A and XP-D patients were examined.. Results The 33 patients had NCS: XP-A (9 patients), XP-C (7 patients), XP-D (10 patients), XP-E (1 patient), XP-V (4 patients), and XP-unknown (2 patients). Peripheral neuropathy based on nerve conduction studies was documented only in two complementation groups: 78% (7/9) of XP-A patients had a sensorimotor neuropathy while 50% (5/10) of XP-D patients had a sensory neuropathy only. Analysis of sural sensory nerve amplitude in both complementation groups XP-A and XP-D correlated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), MRI/CT severity, and Full-scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Analysis of fibular motor nerve amplitude in complementation XP-A correlated with SNHL and MRI/CT severity. Limited follow-up studies showed gradual loss of NCS responses compared to an earlier and more rapid progression of the hearing loss. Conclusions Despite similar brain imaging and audiological findings patients, XP-A and XP-D complementation groups differ in the type of neuropathy, sensorimotor versus sensory alone. A few cases suggest that sensorineural hearing loss may precede abnormal NCS in XP and therefore serve as valuable clinical indicators of XP patients that will later develop peripheral neuropathy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Omar Elghawy ◽  
Alice Y. Zhang ◽  
Ryan Duong ◽  
William G. Wilson ◽  
Eugene Y. Shildkrot

Infantile Refsum disease is a rare peroxisomal biogenesis disorder characterized by impaired alpha-oxidation and accumulation of phytanic acid in the tissues. Patients often present with fundus changes resembling retinitis pigmentosa, developmental delay, sensorineural hearing loss, ataxia, and hepatomegaly. Traditionally, mainstay treatment for this condition has been a phytanic acid-restricted diet, although supplementation with either docosahexaenoic acid or cholic acid has rarely been described in the literature. We present a case of infantile Refsum disease in a child with retinitis pigmentosa-like ocular findings, sensorineural hearing loss, and self-resolving hepatic disease, who developed novel findings of macular edema refractory to carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. We describe management with a phytanic acid-restricted diet and combination docosahexaenoic acid, and cholic acid therapy, which helped to limit progression of her disease.

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