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2021 ◽  
Masashi Shimamura ◽  
Ken Iwata ◽  
Teppei Senda ◽  
Takahiro Negayama ◽  
Masaski Mori ◽  

Abstract Background: Two-stage revision surgery using antibiotic-loaded acryl bone cement (ALAC) is an effective treatment for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after hip arthroplasty. However, ALAC has been reported to release different amounts of antibacterial agents, depending on the type of bone cement used. No previous study has examined patient outcomes based on the polymerization temperature of the bone cement used. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of patients who underwent a two-stage revision surgery using ALAC for PJI, stratified by the polymerization temperature of the bone cement used.Methods: This study involved 23 joints in 23 patients treated with ALAC between 1993 and 2019. They were classified into normal (control group, n=12) and low polymerization temperature (L group, n=11) groups, respectively. Patient outcomes were compared between the groups.Results: In both groups, the infection subsiding rate was 100%. The success rate of revision surgery at the 2-year follow-up was 82.6%. There was no difference between the groups in mean age, time to infection onset, patient general condition, presence of fistulas, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, the infection required less time to subside, and fewer beads or spacers were used in the L group than in the control group. The success rate of revision surgery was 66.7% and 100% in the control and L groups, respectively.Conclusions: In the present study, two-stage revision surgery with ALAC in PJI was associated with a shorter infection subsidence period and fewer surgeries in the group treated with bone cement of low polymerization temperature than in the control group. The use of bone cement of low polymerization temperature in ALAC is an effective treatment option for PJI.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Ning Ding ◽  
Kefei Wang ◽  
Jian Cao ◽  
Ge Hu ◽  
Zhiwei Wang ◽  

BackgroundPrecise preoperative localization is of great importance to improve the success rate and reduce the operation time of VATS surgery. This study aimed to assess the efficacy, safety, patient perception between CT-guided indocyanine green (ICG) preoperative localization of lung nodule and hook-wire localization.Methods65 patients with 85 clinically suspicious pulmonary nodules underwent ICG preoperative localization in this study, and 92 patients with 95 nodules localized by conventional hook-wire served as controls. Both hook-wire localization and ICG injection were performed under CT guidance. Successful targeting rate, success rate in the operative field, incidence rate of complications and respiratory pain score were recorded and compared.ResultsThe successful targeting rate for both groups is 100%, however, due to hook-wire dislodgement, the success rate in the VATS operation field of the hook-wire group (95.6%) is lower than that of the ICG group (100%), with no significant difference(p=0.056). The overall complication rate of the hook-wire group (37.0%) is significantly higher than the ICG group (35.4%) (p=0.038). The mean respiratory pain score of the hook-wire group is 3.70 ± 1.25, which is significantly higher than that of the ICG group (2.85 ± 1.05) (p<0.001).ConclusionsICG composed with contrast mixture are superior to the conventional hook-wire preoperative lung nodule localization procedure, with a lower complication rate, lower pain score, and relatively higher success rate. ICG is a promising alternative method for pulmonary nodule preoperative localization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 77 (2) ◽  
Hans-Rudolf Weiss ◽  
Tuğba Kuru Çolak ◽  
Manuel Lay ◽  
Maksym Borysov

Background: Physiotherapy, brace applications or surgery are the treatment options utilised to manage patients with scoliosis. Many different brace applications are used, and the success rates of orthoses vary.Objectives: Brace applications can have detrimental impacts on the patient leading to physical discomfort, psychological discomfort, and in some instance the use of braces may even be painful. Therefore, future developments in this field should be aimed at improving the success rate and reducing physical distress experienced by the patient while using brace applications. The purpose of this article is to provide recommendations with respect to the most appropriate bracing approach in general.Method: A narrative review of the scientific literature was carried out to substantiate the statements made in this article.Results: The most important braces provided for the treatment of patients with scoliosis and the treatment results that can be achieved are presented and discussed, taking into account the most recent systematic reviews. A wide range of success rates have been found for the different brace applications.Conclusion: Given that brace application may impact the patient leading to physical discomfort and psychological distress, good quality management in brace application for patients with scoliosis is needed to ensure the best possible outcome and the least stressful management.Clinical implications: Safety in brace application for patients with scoliosis needs improvement. The use of standardised and reliable computer aided design (CAD) libraries and appropriate patient information based on published guidelines is suggested.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Chengda Zhao ◽  
Meihua Huang ◽  
Baiyun Wang ◽  
Huanhui Zhong ◽  
Wen Meng

Objective. To probe into the influence of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on diaphragm function and postoperative outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods. 84 patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) in the ICU of our hospital were selected as the research participants, including 38 patients in the control group (CG) sedated with midazolam (MZ) and 46 patients in the research group (RG) with DEX sedation. Ramsay sedation score, visual analogue scale (VAS), and restlessness score (RS) were used to evaluate their state before sedation (T0), as well as 2 h (T1), 6 h (T2), and 24 h (T3) after sedation, and the alterations of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Serum cortisol (Cor), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured before and 24 h after sedation. The end-inspiratory diaphragm thickness (DTei) and end-expiratory diaphragm thickness (DTee) were measured within 2 h after the initiation of MV and 5 min after the spontaneous breathing test (SBT), and the diaphragm thickening fraction (DTF) was calculated. Finally, the ventilator weaning, MV time, and the incidence of adverse reactions (ADs) of the two groups were counted. Results. T0 and T3 witnessed no distinct difference in Ramsay, VAS, and RS scores between the two arms ( P > 0.05 ), but at T1 and T2, RG had better sedation state and lower VAS and RS scores than CG ( P < 0.05 ), with more stable vital signs ( P < 0.05 ). After sedation, the contents of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors in RG were lower, while DTee, DTei, and DTF were higher, versus CG ( P < 0.05 ). Moreover, RG presented higher success rate of first ventilator weaning, less MV time, and lower incidence of ADs than CG ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusions. DEX is effective in mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU, which can protect patients against diaphragm function damage, improve the success rate of ventilator weaning, and benefit the postoperative outcome, with excellent and rapid sedation effect and less stress damage to patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (21) ◽  
pp. 9938
Kun Shao ◽  
Yu Zhang ◽  
Junan Yang ◽  
Hui Liu

Deep learning models are vulnerable to backdoor attacks. The success rate of textual backdoor attacks based on data poisoning in existing research is as high as 100%. In order to enhance the natural language processing model’s defense against backdoor attacks, we propose a textual backdoor defense method via poisoned sample recognition. Our method consists of two parts: the first step is to add a controlled noise layer after the model embedding layer, and to train a preliminary model with incomplete or no backdoor embedding, which reduces the effectiveness of poisoned samples. Then, we use the model to initially identify the poisoned samples in the training set so as to narrow the search range of the poisoned samples. The second step uses all the training data to train an infection model embedded in the backdoor, which is used to reclassify the samples selected in the first step, and finally identify the poisoned samples. Through detailed experiments, we have proved that our defense method can effectively defend against a variety of backdoor attacks (character-level, word-level and sentence-level backdoor attacks), and the experimental effect is better than the baseline method. For the BERT model trained by the IMDB dataset, this method can even reduce the success rate of word-level backdoor attacks to 0%.

Symmetry ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (11) ◽  
pp. 2006
Qi Luo ◽  
Shijian Lin ◽  
Hongxia Wang

Phase retrieval is a classical inverse problem with respect to recovering a signal from a system of phaseless constraints. Many recently proposed methods for phase retrieval such as PhaseMax and gradient-descent algorithms enjoy benign theoretical guarantees on the condition that an elaborate estimate of true solution is provided. Current initialization methods do not perform well when number of measurements are low, which deteriorates the success rate of current phase retrieval methods. We propose a new initialization method that can obtain an estimate of the original signal with uniformly higher accuracy which combines the advantages of the null vector method and maximal correlation method. The constructed spectral matrix for the proposed initialization method has a simple and symmetrical form. A lower error bound is proved theoretically as well as verified numerically.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (6) ◽  
pp. 1-22
Furkan Aydin ◽  
Aydin Aysu ◽  
Mohit Tiwari ◽  
Andreas Gerstlauer ◽  
Michael Orshansky

Key exchange protocols and key encapsulation mechanisms establish secret keys to communicate digital information confidentially over public channels. Lattice-based cryptography variants of these protocols are promising alternatives given their quantum-cryptanalysis resistance and implementation efficiency. Although lattice cryptosystems can be mathematically secure, their implementations have shown side-channel vulnerabilities. But such attacks largely presume collecting multiple measurements under a fixed key, leaving the more dangerous single-trace attacks unexplored. This article demonstrates successful single-trace power side-channel attacks on lattice-based key exchange and encapsulation protocols. Our attack targets both hardware and software implementations of matrix multiplications used in lattice cryptosystems. The crux of our idea is to apply a horizontal attack that makes hypotheses on several intermediate values within a single execution all relating to the same secret, and to combine their correlations for accurately estimating the secret key. We illustrate that the design of protocols combined with the nature of lattice arithmetic enables our attack. Since a straightforward attack suffers from false positives, we demonstrate a novel extend-and-prune procedure to recover the key by following the sequence of intermediate updates during multiplication. We analyzed two protocols, Frodo and FrodoKEM , and reveal that they are vulnerable to our attack. We implement both stand-alone hardware and RISC-V based software realizations and test the effectiveness of the proposed attack by using concrete parameters of these protocols on physical platforms with real measurements. We show that the proposed attack can estimate secret keys from a single power measurement with over 99% success rate.

Mathematics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (21) ◽  
pp. 2677
Alicia Nieto-Reyes ◽  
Rafael Duque ◽  
Giacomo Francisci

The objective of this work is to present a methodology that automates the prediction of students’ academic performance at the end of the course using data recorded in the first tasks of the academic year. Analyzing early student records is helpful in predicting their later results; which is useful, for instance, for an early intervention. With this aim, we propose a methodology based on the random Tukey depth and a non-parametric kernel. This methodology allows teachers and evaluators to define the variables that they consider most appropriate to measure those aspects related to the academic performance of students. The methodology is applied to a real case study obtaining a success rate in the predictions of over the 80%. The case study was carried out in the field of Human-computer Interaction.The results indicate that the methodology could be of special interest to develop software systems that process the data generated by computer-supported learning systems and to warn the teacher of the need to adopt intervention mechanisms when low academic performance is predicted.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Hong Mei ◽  
Zhao Zha ◽  
Wei Wang ◽  
Yusang Xie ◽  
Yuege Huang ◽  

Abstract Background Rhinoviruses (RVs) cause more than half of common colds and, in some cases, more severe diseases. Functional genomics analyses of RVs using siRNA or genome-wide CRISPR screen uncovered a limited set of host factors, few of which have proven clinical relevance. Results Herein, we systematically compare genome-wide CRISPR screen and surface protein-focused CRISPR screen, referred to as surfaceome CRISPR screen, for their efficiencies in identifying RV host factors. We find that surfaceome screen outperforms the genome-wide screen in the success rate of hit identification. Importantly, using the surfaceome screen, we identify olfactomedin-like 3 (OLFML3) as a novel host factor of RV serotypes A and B, including a clinical isolate. We find that OLFML3 is a RV-inducible suppressor of the innate immune response and that OLFML3 antagonizes type I interferon (IFN) signaling in a SOCS3-dependent manner. Conclusion Our study suggests that RV-induced OLFML3 expression is an important mechanism for RV to hijack the immune system and underscores surfaceome CRISPR screen in identifying viral host factors.

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