Natural Aggregates
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 490
Caroline Moura ◽  
Lucas Nascimento ◽  
Carlos Loureiro ◽  
Mafalda Rodrigues ◽  
Joel Oliveira ◽  

Steel slag is a byproduct generated as waste during the steelmaking process and can be considered a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable alternative to replace natural aggregates. Using steel slag aggregates (SSA) to produce asphalt mixtures promotes sustainability and circular economy principles by using an industrial byproduct as a raw material. Thus, this work mainly aims to design more sustainable asphalt mixtures with high amounts of SSA that fit the circular economy expectations. This work developed two asphalt mixtures with SSA for surface (AC 14 surf) and binder/base (AC 20 bin/base) courses. Initially, the excellent wearing and polishing resistance of SSA and their good affinity with bitumen demonstrated the potential of this byproduct to be used in asphalt mixtures. Then, when analyzing the influence of using two different SSA incorporation rates (50% and a percentage close to 100%) in both asphalt mixtures, it was concluded that the use of SSA should be limited to 75% to avoid excessive air void contents and durability problems. The importance of considering the different particle densities of SSA and natural aggregates was highlighted during the mix design by defining a relationship between an effective and equivalent binder content. Finally, the mechanical performance of AC 14 and AC 20 with 75% SSA incorporation was compared to identical conventional mixtures produced with natural granite aggregates. The results obtained showed that the asphalt mixtures with 75% SSA have some workability problems due to the rough and porous surface of SSA. However, they present an excellent water sensitivity and permanent deformation resistance, surpassing the performance of the conventional asphalt mixtures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Yuechao Zhao ◽  
Jiangkai Song ◽  
Jun Xie ◽  
Fusong Wang ◽  
Meizhu Chen ◽  

Applying basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag as aggregate in asphalt mixture is continuously investigated due to the increasing shortage of natural aggregate in recent years. However, the negative effect of BOF’s expansion in water greatly limits its further application in pavement construction. To address this problem, this paper studied the volume stability of BOF, and its asphalt mixture relied on actual engineering. The asphalt mixtures contained BOF aggregate was designed by the Marshall method with three different gradation types (AC-16, AC-20, and ATB-25). Besides, both laboratory samples and the core samples from field drilling were investigated in volume expansion rate after curing in a water bath. The economic and resource benefits of BOF replacement of natural aggregates were also analyzed. The results showed that the free calcium oxide content of BOF slag is positively related to the particle sizes. Nevertheless, the expansion rates of both the BOF aggregate and its asphalt mixture were less than 1%, which meant the BOF aggregate applied to the asphalt mixture meets the practical engineering requirements. The maximum allowable free calcium oxide content for large-grain size of steel slag is the smallest; it is also recommended that the expansibility of large-grain steel slag should be the first concern in the application. The resource assessment indicated that the use of steel slag for the construction of a trial section of one kilometer of single lane can save 967 tons of natural aggregates. The economic evaluation showed that the use of steel slag instead of natural aggregates for surface course construction could reduce the investment by 16.87%. The experimental methods and conclusions mentioned in this article provide stable references to enhance the development of sustainable pavement by recycling metallurgical slag in highway construction.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (12) ◽  
pp. 262-269
Dr. R L Ramesh ◽  
Dr. Nagaraja P S ◽  
Raghavendra R ◽  
Gobinath S ◽  

The Concrete is one of the most important products which are efficiently and effectively used in the field of construction. The usage of natural aggregates in the process of production of concrete was high which lead to huge deficiency of availability of the natural aggregates. At the same time production of cements leads to more environmental pollution. Therefore, the production of concrete was altered by vast usage of admixtures and replacements for natural aggregates. In this paper M60 grade concrete is prepared by using GGBS as a partial replacement of cement which is a good strength building mineral admixture, the steel fibers were also introduced in the concrete to improve the strength parameter and for ease of work with concrete and addition of AUROMIX – 400 which is provided by FOSROC chemicals Bengaluru as super plasticizers. The concrete specimens like Cubes and Cylinders were casted and allowed to curing over a nominal curing period of 7, 14 and 28 days to know the basic mechanical properties of the concrete with the above replacements and at the same time RCC beams were also casted and cured, then post tensioned to know the flexural details of this special concrete.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 7499
Miren Etxeberria

The fabrication of conventional concrete, as well as remains from demolition, has a high environmental impact. This paper assessed the eco-efficiency of concrete made with uncarbonated recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) and fly ash (FA). Two concrete series were produced with an effective water/cement ratio of 0.50 (Series 1) and 0.40 (Series 2). In both series, concretes were produced using 0% and 50% of RCA with 0%, 25% and 50% FA. After analysing the compressive strength, and carbonation and chloride resistance of those concretes, their eco-efficiency based on the binder intensity and CO2-eq intensity was assessed. We found that the use of 50% uncarbonated RCA improved the properties of concretes produced with FA with respect to using natural aggregates. The concrete made of 25% FA plus RCA was considered the most eco-efficient based on the tests of compressive, carbonation and chloride properties with the values of 4.1 kg CO2 m−3 MPa−1, 76.3 kg CO2 m−3 mm−1 year0.5 and 0.079 kg CO2 m−3 C−1, respectively. The uncarbonated RCA improved carbonation resistance, and FA improved chloride resistance. It can be concluded that the use of 50% un-carbonated RCA combined with FA considerably enhanced the properties of hardened concrete and their eco-efficiency with respect to concretes produced with natural aggregates.

Crystals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1518
Antonio López-Uceda ◽  
Enrique Fernández-Ledesma ◽  
Lorenzo Salas-Morera ◽  
José Ramón Jiménez ◽  
David Suescum-Morales

Recycled aggregates (RA) from construction and demolition waste are an alternative to natural aggregates in the construction sector. They are usually classified according to their composition. The main constituent materials are separated into the following categories: unbound natural aggregates, ceramic particles, cementitious particles, bituminous materials, and other materials considered impurities, such as glass, plastic, wood, or gypsum. In this research, a large number of samples of RA were collected from three different recycling plants and their properties were studied. After that, 35 samples were selected randomly, and their RA constituents were separated under laboratory conditions. Cementitious particles were differentiated into two subcategories: masonry mortar and concrete particles. Subsequently, their physical–mechanical properties were measured. The statistical analysis carried out exhibited that the constituents had a statistically significant influence on the physical–mechanical properties studied. Specifically, masonry mortar particles had higher water absorption and worse mechanical properties than concrete and ceramic particles. Secondly, multiple regression models were performed to predict the physical–mechanical properties of RA from their composition since mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) ranged between 0.9% and 8.6%. The differentiation in the subcategories of concrete and masonry mortar particles in compositional testing is useful for predicting the physical–mechanical properties of RA.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 115-132
Sabria Malika Mansour ◽  
Youcef Ghernouti

Abstract Perlite, a natural glassy volcanic rock could be used as supplementary cementitious material to reduce environmental pollution and the consumption of precious natural resources in the concrete industries. The aim of this work is to assess natural perlite used as 50% aggregates substitution by volume (sand or gravel) and as 10%, 15%, 20% cement substitution in self-compacting concrete. Workability characteristics and mechanical properties were analysed. Results showed that replacing 50% of natural aggregates with 50% of perlite aggregates or substituting cement with 10% of perlite powder generated the best workability characteristics and improved compressive, flexural strength, and elastic modulus of concrete at 28 days. Moreover, the results were combined to develop correlations that prove to be good between mechanical properties of self-compacting. Using perlite as aggregates offers a new source of supply and saves natural aggregates. Also, perlite used as cement substitution helps to reduce PC consumption, cost, and CO2 emission.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 7303
Zhibing Xing ◽  
Fenglan Han ◽  
Jiuliang Tian ◽  
Zhichao Xu ◽  
Jiaqi Wang ◽  

A large number of natural aggregates are used in the field of construction materials, resulting in the exhaustion of natural aggregates. Therefore, looking for an alternative will slow down the consumption of natural aggregates. The sintering method not only consumes a lot of energy to prepare aggregates but also produces a lot of pollutants. In this study, silico-manganese (SM) slag was dried, ground into powder, and used as raw material. Solid and liquid alkaline activator methods were used to prepare SM slag non-burning aggregate (SMNA) by the cold bonding method. The effects of grinding time, amounts of solid and liquid alkaline activators, curing temperature, and the amount of added fly ash on aggregate properties were investigated. The aggregate microstructure was characterized by XRD, SEM, and FTIR methods, and the toxic leaching analysis of aggregate was performed. The results showed that with a fixed amount of liquid activator (16.2% wt.) and solid activator (15% wt.) and fly ash (20% wt.), respectively, and curing was performed at room temperature, the aggregate properties were optimal: the bulk density of 1236.6–1476.9 kg/m3 and the water absorption lower than 4.9–5.5%. The apparent density was 1973.1–2281.6 kg/m3, and the bulk crushing strength was 24.7–27.9 MPa. The XRD, SEM, and FTIR results indicated that amorphous gel could be formed from SM under an alkaline activator, improving the aggregate strength. The results of toxic leaching showed that the aggregate prepared from SM exhibited environmentally friendly characteristics. The SMNA was obtained via the simple and low-energy consumption production process, paving the new way toward large-scale utilization of SM.

Chandrashekhar Pandiya

Abstract: This paper purpose of study is to find the properties of Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and compare the same with the concrete produced with natural aggregates. This thesis presents a study conducted on mechanical and durability properties of Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) aggregates concrete. The investigation covered concrete mixes at water cementitious material with ratio of 0.4. Ordinary Portland cement of 43-grade was used in this study. The percentage of Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) aggregates that partially replaced natural aggregates by weight were 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% with glass fiber The results show that the optimum replacement of Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) with natural aggregate then gain strength of concrete compare with normal mix. It is observed that compressive and tensile strength of concrete gain upto with mix 50% NA+50%RAPA+1%SF after that increase percentage of RAP with decrease both strength compare with normal mix. Keywords: RAP, steel fiber, design mix, compressive strength, split tensile strength.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 12714
Yang Zhang ◽  
Bora Cetin ◽  
Tuncer B. Edil

Using recycled pavement materials to construct new pavement base is currently an important construction strategy bringing improved sustainability. This study investigates the long-term performance of pavement bases constructed with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA), reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), and blends with natural aggregates in a seasonal frost region. The stabilization effect of fly ash on RAP was studied as well. In situ falling weight deflectometer (FWD) tests were routinely conducted to provide seasonal deflection data, which were used to back-calculate the layer modulus. Seasonal changes in the base layer modulus along with the pavement ride quality were monitored. One of the two lanes at the test sections was consistently subjected to traffic loading, whereas the other one was not. Findings from this field research indicated that after undergoing over 8 years of naturally seasonal freeze-thaw conditions, 100% RCA, 50% RCA, plus 50% natural aggregates, and 100% RAP, presented improved performance over 100% natural aggregates. However, 50% RAP blended with 50% natural aggregates performed comparably to natural aggregates only, and fly ash did not provide considerable improvement on the long-term performance of 50% RAP plus 50% natural aggregate base. Seasonal climatic variations turned out to affect pavement performance more critically than traffic loading.

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