apis mellifera
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2022 ◽  
Vol 133 ◽  
pp. 126420
María A. David ◽  
Alejandra Yommi ◽  
Enrique Sánchez ◽  
Analía Martinez ◽  
Natalia Murillo ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Joachim R. de Miranda ◽  
Laura E. Brettell ◽  
Nor Chejanovsky ◽  
Anna K. Childers ◽  
Anne Dalmon ◽  

AbstractIn 1977, a sample of diseased adult honeybees (Apis mellifera) from Egypt was found to contain large amounts of a previously unknown virus, Egypt bee virus, which was subsequently shown to be serologically related to deformed wing virus (DWV). By sequencing the original isolate, we demonstrate that Egypt bee virus is in fact a fourth unique, major variant of DWV (DWV-D): more closely related to DWV-C than to either DWV-A or DWV-B. DWV-A and DWV-B are the most common DWV variants worldwide due to their close relationship and transmission by Varroa destructor. However, we could not find any trace of DWV-D in several hundred RNA sequencing libraries from a worldwide selection of honeybee, varroa and bumblebee samples. This means that DWV-D has either become extinct, been replaced by other DWV variants better adapted to varroa-mediated transmission, or persists only in a narrow geographic or host range, isolated from common bee and beekeeping trade routes.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 178
Roksana Kruszakin ◽  
Paweł Migdal

So far, larval rearing in vitro has been an important method in the assessment of bee toxicology, particularly in pesticide risk assessment. However, natural products are increasingly used to control honey bee pathogens or to enhance bee immunity, but their effects on honey bee larvae are mostly unknown. In this study, laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of including selected aqueous plant infusions in the diet of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae in vitro. The toxicity of infusions from three different plant species considered to be medicinal plants was evaluated: tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). The impact of each on the survival of the larvae of honey bees was also evaluated. One-day-old larvae were fed a basal diet consisting of distilled water, sugars (glucose and fructose), yeast extract, and freeze-dried royal jelly or test diets in which distilled water was replaced by plant infusions. The proportion of the diet components was adjusted to the age of the larvae. The larvae were fed twice a day. The experiment lasted seven days. Significant statistical differences in survival rates were found between groups of larvae (exposed or not to the infusions of tansy, greater celandine, and coriander). A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the survival rate was observed in the group with the addition of a coriander herb infusion compared to the control. These results indicate that plant extracts intended to be used in beekeeping should be tested on all development stages of honey bees.

BMC Zoology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
A. M. Chicas-Mosier ◽  
T. E. Black ◽  
K. P. Hester ◽  
L. P. Belzunces ◽  
C. I. Abramson

Abstract Background Aluminum is the third most prevalent element in the earth’s crust. In most conditions, it is tightly bound to form inaccessible compounds, however in low soil pH, the ionized form of aluminum can be taken up by plant roots and distributed throughout the plant tissue. Following this uptake, nectar and pollen concentrations in low soil pH regions can reach nearly 300 mg/kg. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has been demonstrated following aluminum exposure in mammal and aquatic invertebrate species. In honey bees, behaviors consistent with AChE inhibition have been previously recorded; however, the physiological mechanism has not been tested, nor has aversive conditioning. Results This article presents results of ingested aqueous aluminum chloride exposure on AChE as well as acute exposure effects on aversive conditioning in an Apis mellifera ligustica hive. Contrary to previous findings, AChE activity significantly increased as compared to controls following exposure to 300 mg/L Al3+. In aversive conditioning studies, using an automated shuttlebox, there were time and dose-dependent effects on learning and reduced movement following 75 and 300 mg/L exposures. Conclusions These findings, in comparison to previous studies, suggest that aluminum toxicity in honey bees may depend on exposure period, subspecies, and study metrics. Further studies are encouraged at the moderate-high exposure concentrations as there may be multiple variables that affect toxicity which should be teased apart further.

2022 ◽  
Rassol Bahreini ◽  
Medhat Nasr ◽  
Cassandra Docherty ◽  
Samantha Muirhead ◽  
Olivia Herdt ◽  

A-Tai Truong ◽  
Mi-Sun Yoo ◽  
Bo-Ram Yun ◽  
Jeong Eun Kang ◽  
Jinhyeong Noh ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-4
Kh. A. Khaydarova ◽  
F. M. Nurutdinova ◽  
G. A. Ikhtiyarova ◽  
A. A. Khaydarov

The article provides data on the development of a new thickening composition for printing cotton-lye fabric with antibacterial properties based on biodegradable polymers Chitosan synthesized from Apis Mellifera bee dead with CMC with addition of CMC and synthetic hydrolyzed acrylic emulsion. Studied the fungicidal properties of the developed mixed thickener for active dyes used in printing fabrics. As a result of observations, it was revealed that these new thickeners on the basis of exhibit pronounced antimicrobial activity in relation to the micelle fungus Aspergillus terreus. The optical density of the samples shows that these thickeners are resistant to mycelial fungi. Among thickeners, thickeners based on Uzhitan-?MS-HAE, Uzkhitan-CMS have the most pronounced bactericidal activity, and these thickeners are more stable, they can be used the next day and even on the second day for printing mixed fabrics.

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