proton donor
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Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 516
You Qian ◽  
Fuchun Gong ◽  
Jiguang Li ◽  
Pan Ma ◽  
Hanming Zhu ◽  

Constructing excited-state intermolecular proton transfer (ESIPT-e) fluorophores represents significant challenges due to the harsh requirement of bearing a proton donor-acceptor (D-A) system and their matching proton donating-accepting ability in the same molecule. Herein, we synthesized a new-type ESIPT-e fluorophor (2-APC) using the “four-component one-pot” reaction. By the installing of a cyano-group on pyridine scaffold, the proton donating ability of -NH2 was greatly enhanced, enabling 2-APC to undergo ESIPT-e process. Surprisingly, 2-APC exhibited dual-emissions in protic solvents ethanol and normal fluorescence in aprotic solvents, which is vastly different from that of conventional ESIPT-a dyes. The ESIPT emission can be obviously suppressed by Fe3+ due to the coordination reaction of Fe3+ with the A-D system in 2-APC. From this basis, a highly sensitive and selective method was established using 2-APC as a fluorescent probe, which offers the sensitive detection of Fe3+ ranging from 0 to 13 μM with the detection limit of 7.5 nM. The recovery study of spiked Fe3+ measured by the probe showed satisfactory results (97.2103.4%) with the reasonable RSD ranging from 3.1 to 3.8%. Moreover, 2-APC can also exhibit aggregation-induced effect in poor solvent or solid-state, eliciting strong red fluorescence. 2-APC was also applied to cell-imaging, exhibiting good cell-permeability, biocompatibility and color rendering. This multi-mode emission of 2-APC is significant departure from that of conventional extended p-conjugated systems and ESIPT dyes based on a flat and rigid molecular design. The “one-pot synthesis” strategy for the construction of ESIPT molecules pioneered a new route to achieve tricolor-emissive fluorophores.

Jiang Bian ◽  
Anthony Cruz ◽  
Gabriel Lopez-Morales ◽  
Anton Kyrylenko ◽  
Donna McGregor ◽  

Histidine (an imidazole-based amino acid) is a promising building block for short aromatic peptides containing a proton donor/acceptor moiety. Previous studies have shown that polyalanine helical peptides substituted at regular intervals with histidine residues exhibit both structural stability as well as high proton affinity and high conductivity. Here, we present first-principle calculations of non-aqueous histidine-containing 310-,  and -helices and show that they are able to form hydrogen-bonded networks mimicking proton wires that have the ability to shuttle protons via the Grotthuss shuttling mechanism. The formation of these wires enhances the stability of the helices, and our structural characterizations confirm that the secondary structures are conserved despite distortions of the backbones. In all cases, the helices exhibit high proton affinity and proton transfer barriers on the order of 1~4 kcal/mol. Zero-point energy calculations suggest that for these systems, ground state vibrational energy can provide enough energy to cross the proton transport energy barrier. Additionally, ab initio molecular dynamics results suggests that the protons are transported unidirectionally through the wire at a rate of approximately 2 Å every 20 fs. These results demonstrate that efficient deprotonation-controlled proton wires can be formed using non-aqueous histidine-containing helical peptides.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 290
In Jung Kim ◽  
Uwe T. Bornscheuer ◽  
Ki Hyun Nam

β-Glucosidases (Bgls) convert cellobiose and other soluble cello-oligomers into glucose and play important roles in fundamental biological processes, providing energy sources in living organisms. Bgls are essential terminal enzymes of cellulose degradation systems and attractive targets for lignocellulose-based biotechnological applications. Characterization of novel Bgls is important for broadening our knowledge of this enzyme class and can provide insights into its further applications. In this study, we report the biochemical and structural analysis of a Bgl from the hemicellulose-degrading thermophilic anaerobe Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum (TsaBgl). TsaBgl exhibited its maximum hydrolase activity on p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside at pH 6.0 and 55 °C. The crystal structure of TsaBgl showed a single (β/α)8 TIM-barrel fold, and a β8-α14 loop, which is located around the substrate-binding pocket entrance, showing a unique conformation compared with other structurally known Bgls. A Tris molecule inhibited enzyme activity and was bound to the active site of TsaBgl coordinated by the catalytic residues Glu163 (proton donor) and Glu351 (nucleophile). Titration experiments showed that TsaBgl belongs to the glucose-tolerant Bgl family. The gatekeeper site of TsaBgl is similar to those of other glucose-tolerant Bgls, whereas Trp323 and Leu170, which are involved in glucose tolerance, show a unique configuration. Our results therefore improve our knowledge about the Tris-mediated inhibition and glucose tolerance of Bgl family members, which is essential for their industrial application.

Kinga Wzgarda-Raj ◽  
Agnieszka J. Rybarczyk-Pirek ◽  
Sławomir Wojtulewski ◽  
Marcin Palusiak

The structures of novel cocrystals of 4-nitropyridine N-oxide with benzenesulfonamide derivatives, namely, 4-nitrobenzenesulfonamide–4-nitropyridine N-oxide (1/1), C5H4N2O3·C6H6N2O4S, and 4-chlorobenzenesulfonamide–4-nitropyridine N-oxide (1/1), C6H6ClNO2S·C5H4N2O3, are stabilized by N—H...O hydrogen bonds, with the sulfonamide group acting as a proton donor. The O atoms of the N-oxide and nitro groups are acceptors in these interactions. The latter is a double acceptor of bifurcated hydrogen bonds. Previous studies on similar crystal structures indicated competition between these functional groups in the formation of hydrogen bonds, with the priority being for the N-oxide group. In contrast, the present X-ray studies indicate the existence of a hydrogen-bonding synthon including N—H...O(N-oxide) and N—H...O(nitro) bridges. We present here a more detailed analysis of the N-oxide–sulfonamide–nitro N—H...O ternary complex with quantum theory computations and the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) approach. Both interactions are present in the crystals, but the O atom of the N-oxide group is found to be a more effective proton acceptor in hydrogen bonds, with an interaction energy about twice that of the nitro-group O atoms.

A. Aathif Basha ◽  
F. Liakath Ali Khan

At 308 K, using a 9.37 GHz dielectric relaxation setup, dielectric studies of hydrogen bonded complexes of benzamide and acetamide with 4-fluorophenol, 4-bromophenol, 4-chlorophenol, and 4-iodophenol in benzene were performed. Various dielectric parameters (such as ??, ??, ?0, and ??) were tested. The steric interactions of the proton donor determined the group rotation relaxation time t(2), whereas the significance of Higasi’s single frequency method for multiple relaxation time t(1) was determined by the hydrogen bonding power of the phenolic hydrogen. The presence of a 1:1 complex system between the prepared samples, as well as a charge transfer between the free hydroxyl group of phenols and the carbonyl group of amides was confirmed by the fact that the relaxation time and molar free energy activation of the 1:1 molar ratio were greater than some other higher molar ratios (i.e. 3:1, 2:1, 1:2, 1:3).

2021 ◽  
Gabriela C. Schröder ◽  
William B. O'Dell ◽  
Simon P. Webb ◽  
Pratul K. Agarwal ◽  
Flora Meilleur

Metalloproteins perform a diverse array of redox-related reactions facilitated by the increased chemical functionality afforded by their metallocofactors. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are a class of copper-dependent enzymes that are responsible for the breakdown of recalcitrant polysaccharides via oxidative cleavage at the glycosidic bond. The activated copper-oxygen intermediates and their mechanism of formation remains to be established. Neutron protein crystallography which permits direct visualization of protonation states was used to investigate the initial steps of oxygen activation directly following active site copper reduction in Neurospora crassa LPMO9D. Herein, we cryo-trap an activated dioxygen intermediate in a mixture of superoxo and hydroperoxo states, and we identify the conserved second coordination shell residue His157 as the proton donor. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that both active site states are stable. The hydroperoxo formed is potentially an intermediate in the mechanism of hydrogen peroxide formation in the absence of substrate. We establish that the N-terminal amino group of the copper coordinating His1 remains doubly protonated directly following molecular oxygen reduction by copper. Aided by mining minima free energy calculations we establish His157 conformational flexibility in solution that is abolished by steric hindrance in the crystal. A neutron crystal structure of NcLPMO9D at low pH supports occlusion of the active site which prevents protonation of His157 at acidic conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 552-560
Galina V. Burmakina ◽  
Dmitry V. Zimonin ◽  
Victor V. Verpekin ◽  
Anatoly I. Rubaylo

The reduction of levulinic acid by electrochemical methods in acetonitrile with or without proton donor on platinum, rhodium, glassy carbon, dropping mercury, iron, copper and lead electrodes were studied. The reduction of levulinic acid was shown to depend on the nature of electrode material and to proceed according to either electrocatalytic or electrochemical mechanisms

2021 ◽  
Vol 2083 (3) ◽  
pp. 032089
Yueyang Fu

Abstract According to the Bronsted-Lowry theory, an acid is a proton donor, and a base is a proton acceptor. An acid-base reaction involves the proton transfer between chemicals, where a base containing hydroxide ion (OH-) accepts a proton (H+) from an acidic solution to form water (Khan,2016). In the above equation, HCl as an acid donates one H+ ion, and NaOH as a base accepts the proton to form one water molecule (H2O). So, a proton from the acid is transferred to the anion of the base. Then, the metal cation (Na+) and the conjugate base anion (Cl-) form the salt NaCl.

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