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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 013-018
Author(s):  
Mohini Chandrashekhar Upadhye ◽  
Mohini Chetan Kuchekar ◽  
Rohini Revansiddhappa Pujari ◽  
Nutan Uttam Sable

Biopolymers are compounds prepared by using various living organisms, including plants. These are composed of repeated units of the same or similar structure (monomers) linked together. Rubber, starch, cellulose, proteins and DNA, RNA, chitin, and peptides are some of the examples of natural biopolymers. Biopolymers are a diverse and remarkably versatile class of materials that are either produced by biological systems or synthesize from biological sources. Biopolymers are used in pharmaceutical industry and also in food industry.Naturally derived polymers are also used for conditioning benefits in hair and skin care. Biopolymers have various applications in medicine, food, packaging, and petroleum industries. This review article is focused on various aspects of biopolymers with a special emphasis on role of biopolymers in green nanotechnology and agriculture.


Cosmetics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Author(s):  
Maya Stoyneva-Gärtner ◽  
Blagoy Uzunov ◽  
Georg Gärtner

Microscopic prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae (microalgae), which can be effectively grown in mass cultures, are gaining increasing interest in cosmetics. Up to now, the main attention was on aquatic algae, while species from aeroterrestrial and extreme environments remained underestimated. In these habitats, algae accumulate high amounts of some chemical substances or develop specific compounds, which cause them to thrive in inimical conditions. Among such biologically active molecules is a large family of lipids, which are significant constituents in living organisms and valuable ingredients in cosmetic formulations. Therefore, natural sources of lipids are increasingly in demand in the modern cosmetic industry and its innovative technologies. Among novelties in skin care products is the use of lipid nanoparticles as carriers of dermatologically active ingredients, which enhance their penetration and release in the skin strata. This review is an attempt to comprehensively cover the available literature on the high-value lipids from microalgae, which inhabit aeroterrestrial and extreme habitats (AEM). Data on different compounds of 87 species, subspecies and varieties from 53 genera (represented by more than 141 strains) from five phyla are provided and, despite some gaps in the current knowledge, demonstrate the promising potential of AEM as sources of valuable lipids for novel skin care products.


Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 40
Author(s):  
Taisuke Tomonaga ◽  
Hiroto Izumi ◽  
Chinatsu Nishida ◽  
Kaori Kato ◽  
Kazuhiro Yatera ◽  
...  

Photocatalytic filters installed in air purifiers have been used to purify spaces by decomposing allergenic substances. However, we have not found any reports that evaluate the effectiveness of photocatalytic filters in suppressing allergic reactions in living organisms. In this study, we intratracheally instilled ovalbumin (OVA) into OVA-sensitized mice after the OVA was photocatalyzed by a titanium dioxide (TiO2) filter, and verified the experimental model for evaluating the allergy-suppressing effect of photocatalysts. Mice were sensitized to OVA (10 µg/mouse) four times, and were intratracheally instilled with OVA (10 µg/mouse) after photocatalysis three times. Non-sensitized animals were instilled with normal saline following the same exposure schedule. The mice were dissected 24 h after final exposure. The OVA after photocatalysis significantly decreased the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the concentration of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 in serum, which were elevated in untreated OVA. Moreover, our experimental model showed the suppression of allergic reactions in mice, along with the decomposition of OVA after photocatalysis using the photocatalytic filter. Taken together, our experimental model for evaluating allergic reactions in the respiratory tract suggested that the allergy-suppressing effect of the photocatalytic filter can be evaluated.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 81-85
Author(s):  
B. Asadova

Stress factors limit the development of living organisms, especially plants, and reduce their productivity. In this regard, the study of the effects of stress factors on plants and the discovery of adaptation mechanisms play an important role in the regulation of stress in the cell. From a biological point of view, stress is considered to be any change in the external environment that impairs the normal development of the plant or changes it in a negative direction. Stresses cause changes in the physiological activity of plants, weaken the process of biosynthesis in the cell, disrupt normal life and ultimately can cause plant death.


Biosensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 41
Author(s):  
Le Minh Tu Phan ◽  
Thi Xoan Hoang ◽  
Sungbo Cho

Although iron is an essential constituent for almost all living organisms, iron dyshomeostasis at a cellular level may trigger oxidative stress and neuronal damage. Hence, there are numerous reported carbon dots (CDs) that have been synthesized and applied to determine intracellular iron ions. However, among reported CDs focused to detect Fe3+ ions, only a few CDs have been designed to specifically determine Fe2+ ions over Fe3+ ions for monitoring of intracellular Fe2+ ions. We have developed the nitrogen-doped CDs (NCDs) for fluorescence turn-off detection of Fe2+ at cellular level. The as-synthesized NCDs exhibit a strong blue fluorescence and low cytotoxicity, acting as fluorescence probes to detect Fe2+ as low as 0.702 µM in aqueous solution within 2 min and visualize intracellular Fe2+ in the concentration range from 0 to 500 µM within 20 min. The as-prepared NCDs possess some advantages such as high biocompatibility, strong fluorescence properties, selectivity, and rapidity for intracellular Fe2+ monitoring, making NCDs an excellent nanoprobe for biosensing of intracellular ferrous ions.


Author(s):  
Farzad Taghizadeh-Hesary ◽  
Hassan Akbari ◽  
Moslem Bahadori

Like living organisms, cancer cells require energy to survive and interact with their environment. Recently, investigators demonstrated that cancer cells can hijack mitochondria from immune cells. This behavior sheds light on a pivotal piece in the puzzle of cancer, the ‘dependence’. This article illustrates how new, functional mitochondria help cancer cells to survive in the harsh tumor microenvironment, evade immune cells, and improve their malignancy. Finally, we will discuss how blocking the routes supplying energy for cancer cells can improve the treatment outcomes of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. This article provides a new theory in oncology, the ‘energy battle’ between cancer and immune cells. It alludes each party with a higher energy level can be the winner. This theory explains cancer biogenesis and provides novel insights to improve treatment outcomes.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dipika Pandey ◽  
Tirthankar Banerjee ◽  
Neha Badola ◽  
Jaspal Singh Chauhan

Abstract Microplastics (MPs) are ubiquitous in our environment. Its presence in air, water and soil makes it a serious threat to living organisms. The present study aimed to assess the availability of MPs in air and street dust of a metropolitan city Varanasi, India. Suspended dust samples and street dust samples were collected from various sampling sites. The assessment of MPs was conducted by for physical identification binocular microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), while elemental analysis done by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX). and finally, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for functional group analysis. the presence of MPs in both suspended dust and street dust samples of all selected sampling sites was confirmed by results. MPs of different color with the shape of Fragments, Films, Spherules and Fibers were observed in the study. However, most of the MPs were less than 1mm in size. The MPs identified in our study were majorly polypropylene, polystyrene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polyester, and polyvinyl chloride. EDX analysis showed presence of trace elements like aluminum, cadmium, magnesium, sodium, and silicon apart from carbon and oxygen, which indicates the presence of additives or adsorption capacity of MPs. Confirmation of MPs in the air of a locality of Varanasi explains the need of deep research in this concerned field to protect our future from negative impacts of breathing MPs.


2022 ◽  
pp. 179-202
Author(s):  
Marion Borey ◽  
◽  
Jordi Estelle ◽  
Claire Rogel-Gaillard ◽  
◽  
...  

Living organisms continuously and intimately interact with commensal microbial communities referred to as microbiota and microbiomes. These complex ecosystems provide their hosts with vital services. The gut microbiome develops and diversifies after birth in pigs, as in all mammals. The diversification dynamics follows the host development early in life, reaches an initial level of richness and stabilization before 60 days of age, and continues to mature but at a much lower rate while ageing and adapting to environmental changes. There is a wide variation in microbiome composition at individual and group levels, due to a combination of many factors including host genetics, environmental factors, feed and feed additives, and farm practices. Although the gut microbiome displays region-specific composition along the digestive tract, with likely sequential, complementary biological functionalities, the fecal microbiome is often considered as a good surrogate and provides many of the associations identified with host phenotypes.


Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 173
Author(s):  
Douyan Wang ◽  
Yu Hayashi ◽  
Takahiro Enoki ◽  
Kenta Nakahara ◽  
Tetsuya Arita ◽  
...  

Recent years have seen numerous studies into how applying pulsed high electric fields (PEF) to living organisms induces various stress reactions. Plants produce glucose through photosynthesis and use this as a source of energy for living, yet there are few studies on the photosynthetic response characteristics when PEF is applied to growing plants. In this study, the photosynthetic response when electric fields of 10 to 100 V/mm were applied to light and dark-acclimated leaves of lettuce was measured by combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence, and the exposure time was kept constant at 500 s. The responses to PEF with regard to the photosynthetic parameters of electron transfer rate (ETR), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), photosynthetic rate (A), and transpiration rate (E) were recorded during the experiment. Results showed that PEF can cause both the activation and deactivation of photosynthetic activity in lettuce, that there is an optimum value for activation, and that the application of excessive energy leads to inactivation. This study also found that stomata on both active and deactivated lettuce had been open to a greater extent than lettuce to which PEF had not been applied. All the results of statistical significance in this study were p < 0.05 and p < 0.01.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Lakshay Anand ◽  
Carlos M. Rodriguez Lopez

Abstract Background The recent advancements in high-throughput sequencing have resulted in the availability of annotated genomes, as well as of multi-omics data for many living organisms. This has increased the need for graphic tools that allow the concurrent visualization of genomes and feature-associated multi-omics data on single publication-ready plots. Results We present chromoMap, an R package, developed for the construction of interactive visualizations of chromosomes/chromosomal regions, mapping of any chromosomal feature with known coordinates (i.e., protein coding genes, transposable elements, non-coding RNAs, microsatellites, etc.), and chromosomal regional characteristics (i.e. genomic feature density, gene expression, DNA methylation, chromatin modifications, etc.) of organisms with a genome assembly. ChromoMap can also integrate multi-omics data (genomics, transcriptomics and epigenomics) in relation to their occurrence across chromosomes. ChromoMap takes tab-delimited files (BED like) or alternatively R objects to specify the genomic co-ordinates of the chromosomes and elements to annotate. Rendered chromosomes are composed of continuous windows of a given range, which, on hover, display detailed information about the elements annotated within that range. By adjusting parameters of a single function, users can generate a variety of plots that can either be saved as static image or as HTML documents. Conclusions ChromoMap’s flexibility allows for concurrent visualization of genomic data in each strand of a given chromosome, or of more than one homologous chromosome; allowing the comparison of multi-omic data between genotypes (e.g. species, varieties, etc.) or between homologous chromosomes of phased diploid/polyploid genomes. chromoMap is an extensive tool that can be potentially used in various bioinformatics analysis pipelines for genomic visualization of multi-omics data.


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