Glucose Tolerance
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Author(s):  
İsmail Dündar ◽  
Ayşehan Akıncı

Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and other comorbidities in overweight and obese children in Malatya, Turkey. Methods Retrospective cross-sectional study. We studied 860 obese and overweight children and adolescents (obese children Body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile, overweight children BMI >85th percentile) aged between 6 and 18 years. The diagnosis of MetS, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and T2DM were defined according to modified the World Health Organization criteria adapted for children. Other comorbidities were studied. Results Subjects (n=860) consisted of 113 overweight and 747 obese children of whom 434 (50.5%) were girls. MetS was significantly more prevalent in obese than overweight children (43.8 vs. 2.7%, p<0.001), and in pubertal than prepubertal children (41.1 vs. 31.7%, p<0.001). Mean homeostasis model assessment for insulin ratio (HOMA-IR) was 3.6 ± 2.0 in the prepubertal and 4.9 ± 2.4 in pubertal children (p<0.001). All cases underwent oral glucose tolerance test and IGT, IFG, and T2DM were diagnosed in 124 (14.4%), 19 (2.2%), and 32 (3.7%) cases, respectively. Insulin resistance (IR) was present in 606 cases (70.5%). Conclusions Puberty and obesity are important risk factors for MetS, T2DM, and IR. The prevalence of MetS, T2DM, and other morbidities was high in the study cohort. Obese children and adolescents should be carefully screened for T2DM, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, dyslipidemia, hypertension, IGT, and IFG. The prevention, early recognition, and treatment of obesity are essential to avoid associated morbidities.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Brian Akhaphong ◽  
Brigid Gregg ◽  
Doga Kumusoglu ◽  
Seokwon Jo ◽  
Kanakadurga Singer ◽  
...  

The risk of obesity in adulthood is subject to programming in the womb. Maternal obesity contributes to programming of obesity and metabolic disease risk in the adult offspring. With the increasing prevalence of obesity in women of reproductive age there is a need to understand the ramifications of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy on offspring’s metabolic heath trajectory. In the present study, we determined the long-term metabolic outcomes on adult male and female offspring of dams fed with HFD during pregnancy. C57BL/6J dams were fed either Ctrl or 60% Kcal HFD for 4 weeks before and throughout pregnancy, and we tested glucose homeostasis in the adult offspring. Both Ctrl and HFD-dams displayed increased weight during pregnancy, but HFD-dams gained more weight than Ctrl-dams. Litter size and offspring birthweight were not different between HFD-dams or Ctrl-dams. A significant reduction in random blood glucose was evident in newborns from HFD-dams compared to Ctrl-dams. Islet morphology and alpha-cell fraction were normal but a reduction in beta-cell fraction was observed in newborns from HFD-dams compared to Ctrl-dams. During adulthood, male offspring of HFD-dams displayed comparable glucose tolerance under normal chow. Male offspring re-challenged with HFD displayed glucose intolerance transiently. Adult female offspring of HFD-dams demonstrated normal glucose tolerance but displayed increased insulin resistance relative to controls under normal chow diet. Moreover, adult female offspring of HFD-dams displayed increased insulin secretion in response to high-glucose treatment, but beta-cell mass were comparable between groups. Together, these data show that maternal HFD at pre-conception and during gestation predisposes the female offspring to insulin resistance in adulthood.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262584
Author(s):  
Hannah M. Kinsella ◽  
Laura D. Hostnik ◽  
Hailey A. Snyder ◽  
Sarah E. Mazur ◽  
Ahmed M. Kamr ◽  
...  

The equine neonate is considered to have impaired glucose tolerance due to delayed maturation of the pancreatic endocrine system. Few studies have investigated insulin sensitivity in newborn foals using dynamic testing methods. The objective of this study was to assess insulin sensitivity by comparing the insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (I-FSIGTT) between neonatal foals and adult horses. This study was performed on healthy neonatal foals (n = 12), 24 to 60 hours of age, and horses (n = 8), 3 to 14 years of age using dextrose (300 mg/kg IV) and insulin (0.02 IU/kg IV). Insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg), glucose effectiveness (Sg), and disposition index (DI) were calculated using minimal model analysis. Proxy measurements were calculated using fasting insulin and glucose concentrations. Nonparametric statistical methods were used for analysis and reported as median and interquartile range (IQR). SI was significantly higher in foals (18.3 L·min-1· μIU-1 [13.4–28.4]) compared to horses (0.9 L·min-1· μIU-1 [0.5–1.1]); (p < 0.0001). DI was higher in foals (12 × 103 [8 × 103−14 × 103]) compared to horses (4 × 102 [2 × 102−7 × 102]); (p < 0.0001). AIRg and Sg were not different between foals and horses. The modified insulin to glucose ratio (MIRG) was lower in foals (1.72 μIUinsulin2/10·L·mgglucose [1.43–2.68]) compared to horses (3.91 μIU insulin2/10·L·mgglucose [2.57–7.89]); (p = 0.009). The homeostasis model assessment of beta cell function (HOMA-BC%) was higher in horses (78.4% [43–116]) compared to foals (23.2% [17.8–42.2]); (p = 0.0096). Our results suggest that healthy neonatal foals are insulin sensitive in the first days of life, which contradicts current literature regarding the equine neonate. Newborn foals may be more insulin sensitive immediately after birth as an evolutionary adaptation to conserve energy during the transition to extrauterine life.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 384
Author(s):  
Ilona Juchnicka ◽  
Mariusz Kuźmicki ◽  
Piotr Zabielski ◽  
Adam Krętowski ◽  
Agnieszka Błachnio-Zabielska ◽  
...  

We hypothesized that sphingolipids may be early biomarkers of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Here, 520 women with normal fasting plasma glucose levels were recruited in the first trimester and tested with a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test in the 24th–28th week of pregnancy. Serum sphingolipids concentrations were measured in the first and the second trimester by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) in 53 patients who were diagnosed with GDM, as well as 82 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 32 non-pregnant women. In the first trimester, pregnant women showed higher concentrations of C16:0, C18:1, C22:0, C24:1, and C24:0-Cer and lower levels of sphinganine (SPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) compared to non-pregnant women. During pregnancy, we observed significant changes in C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C24:1-Cer levels in the GDM group and C18:1 and C24:0-Cer in NGT. The GDM (pre-conversion) and NGT groups in the first trimester differed solely in the levels of C18:1-Cer (AUC = 0.702 p = 0.008), also considering glycemia. Thus, C18:1-Cer revealed its potential as a GDM biomarker. Sphingolipids are known to be a modulator of insulin resistance, and our results indicate that ceramide measurements in early pregnancy may help with GDM screening.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 311
Author(s):  
Gabriele Brosolo ◽  
Andrea Da Porto ◽  
Luca Bulfone ◽  
Laura Scandolin ◽  
Antonio Vacca ◽  
...  

Recent evidence indicates that mildly increased fasting and post-oral load blood glucose concentrations contribute to development of organ damage in nondiabetic patients with hypertension. In previous studies, vitamin D deficiency was associated with decreased glucose tolerance. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between serum 25(OH)D levels and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in hypertension. In 187 nondiabetic essential hypertensive patients free of cardiovascular or renal complications, we measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) and performed a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Patients with 25(OH)D deficiency/insufficiency were older and had significantly higher blood pressure, fasting and post-OGTT (G-AUC) glucose levels, post-OGTT insulin (I-AUC), PTH levels, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome than patients with normal serum 25(OH)D. 25(OH)D levels were inversely correlated with age, blood pressure, fasting glucose, G-AUC, triglycerides, and serum calcium and PTH, while no significant relationships were found with body mass index (BMI), fasting insulin, I-AUC, HOMA index, and renal function. In a multivariate regression model, greater G-AUC was associated with lower 25(OH)D levels independently of BMI and seasonal vitamin D variations. Thus, in nondiabetic hypertensive patients, 25(OH)D deficiency/insufficiency could contribute to impaired glucose tolerance without directly affecting insulin sensitivity.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marta Garaulet ◽  
Jesus Lopez-Minguez ◽  
Hassan S Dashti ◽  
Céline Vetter ◽  
Antonio Miguel Hernández-Martínez ◽  
...  

<strong>Objective: </strong>We tested whether the concurrence of food intake and elevated concentration of endogenous melatonin, as occurs in late eating, results in impaired glucose control, in particular in carriers of the type 2 diabetes-associated G allele in the melatonin-receptor-1-b gene (<i>MTNR1B</i>).<strong> </strong> <p><strong>Research Design and Methods:</strong> In a Spanish natural late eating population, a randomized, cross-over study design was performed, following an 8-h fast. Each participant <strong>(n=845) </strong>underwent two evening 2-h 75g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT): an early condition scheduled 4 hours prior to habitual bedtime <strong>(“early dinner-timing”)</strong>, and a late condition scheduled 1 hour prior to habitual bedtime <strong>(“late dinner-timing”)</strong>, simulating an early and a late dinner timing, respectively.<strong> </strong>Differences in postprandial glucose and insulin responses were determined using incremental area under the curve (AUC) calculated by the trapezoidal method between <strong>early and late dinner-timing.</strong><strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> <strong>Melatonin serum levels were </strong>3.5-fold <strong>higher in the late <i>vs. </i>early condition, with late dinner-timing resulting in </strong>6.7% <strong>lower insulin</strong> <strong>area-under-the-curve (AUC) and </strong>8.3%<strong> higher glucose</strong> <strong>AUC. In the late condition<i> MTNR1B</i> G-allele carriers had lower glucose tolerance than non-carriers. Genotype differences in glucose tolerance were attributed to reductions in </strong>β-cell <strong>function (<i>P<sub>int</sub></i><sub> </sub>AUCgluc=0.009, <i>P<sub>int</sub></i><sub> </sub>CIR=0.022, <i>P<sub>int </sub></i>DI=0.018).</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> <strong>Concurrently high endogenous melatonin and carbohydrate intake, as typical for late eating, impair glucose tolerance, especially in <i>MTNR1B</i> G-risk-allele carriers<i>, </i>attributable to insulin secretion defects.</strong></p>


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marta Garaulet ◽  
Jesus Lopez-Minguez ◽  
Hassan S Dashti ◽  
Céline Vetter ◽  
Antonio Miguel Hernández-Martínez ◽  
...  

<strong>Objective: </strong>We tested whether the concurrence of food intake and elevated concentration of endogenous melatonin, as occurs in late eating, results in impaired glucose control, in particular in carriers of the type 2 diabetes-associated G allele in the melatonin-receptor-1-b gene (<i>MTNR1B</i>).<strong> </strong> <p><strong>Research Design and Methods:</strong> In a Spanish natural late eating population, a randomized, cross-over study design was performed, following an 8-h fast. Each participant <strong>(n=845) </strong>underwent two evening 2-h 75g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT): an early condition scheduled 4 hours prior to habitual bedtime <strong>(“early dinner-timing”)</strong>, and a late condition scheduled 1 hour prior to habitual bedtime <strong>(“late dinner-timing”)</strong>, simulating an early and a late dinner timing, respectively.<strong> </strong>Differences in postprandial glucose and insulin responses were determined using incremental area under the curve (AUC) calculated by the trapezoidal method between <strong>early and late dinner-timing.</strong><strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> <strong>Melatonin serum levels were </strong>3.5-fold <strong>higher in the late <i>vs. </i>early condition, with late dinner-timing resulting in </strong>6.7% <strong>lower insulin</strong> <strong>area-under-the-curve (AUC) and </strong>8.3%<strong> higher glucose</strong> <strong>AUC. In the late condition<i> MTNR1B</i> G-allele carriers had lower glucose tolerance than non-carriers. Genotype differences in glucose tolerance were attributed to reductions in </strong>β-cell <strong>function (<i>P<sub>int</sub></i><sub> </sub>AUCgluc=0.009, <i>P<sub>int</sub></i><sub> </sub>CIR=0.022, <i>P<sub>int </sub></i>DI=0.018).</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> <strong>Concurrently high endogenous melatonin and carbohydrate intake, as typical for late eating, impair glucose tolerance, especially in <i>MTNR1B</i> G-risk-allele carriers<i>, </i>attributable to insulin secretion defects.</strong></p>


Diabetes Care ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marta Garaulet ◽  
Jesus Lopez-Minguez ◽  
Hassan S. Dashti ◽  
Céline Vetter ◽  
Antonio Miguel Hernández-Martínez ◽  
...  

OBJECTIVE We tested whether the concurrence of food intake and elevated concentration of endogenous melatonin, as occurs in late eating, results in impaired glucose control, in particular in carriers of the type 2 diabetes–associated G allele in the melatonin receptor-1b gene (MTNR1B). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a Spanish natural late-eating population, a randomized, crossover study was performed. Each participant (n = 845) underwent two evening 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests following an 8-h fast: an early condition scheduled 4 h prior to habitual bedtime (“early dinner timing”) and a late condition scheduled 1 h prior to habitual bedtime (“late dinner timing”), simulating an early and a late dinner timing, respectively. Differences in postprandial glucose and insulin responsesbetween early and late dinner timing were determined using incremental area under the curve (AUC) calculated by the trapezoidal method. RESULTS Melatonin serum levels were 3.5-fold higher in the late versus early condition, with late dinner timing resulting in 6.7% lower insulin AUC and 8.3% higher glucose AUC. In the late condition, MTNR1B G-allele carriers had lower glucose tolerance than noncarriers. Genotype differences in glucose tolerance were attributed to reductions in β-cell function (P for interaction, Pint glucose area under the curve = 0.009, Pint corrected insulin response = 0.022, and Pint Disposition Index = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS Concurrently high endogenous melatonin and carbohydrate intake, as typical for late eating, impairs glucose tolerance, especially in MTNR1B G-risk allele carriers, attributable to insulin secretion defects.


Author(s):  
Evelyne París-Oller ◽  
Cristina Soriano-Úbeda ◽  
Ramsés Belda-Pérez ◽  
Lucía Sarriás-Gil ◽  
Jordana S. Lopes ◽  
...  

Abstract The addition of reproductive fluids (RF) to the culture media has shown benefits in different embryonic traits but its long-term effects on the offspring phenotype are still unknown. We aimed to describe such effects in pigs. Blood samples and growth parameters were collected from piglets derived from in vitro-produced embryos (IVP) with or without RF added in the culture media versus those artificially inseminated (AI), from day 0 to month 6 of life. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed on day 45 of life. We show here the first comparative data of the growth of animals produced through different assisted reproductive techniques, demonstrating differences between groups. Overall, there was a tendency to have a larger size at birth and faster growth in animals derived from in vitro fertilization and embryo culture versus AI, although this trend was diminished by the addition of RFs to the culture media. Similarly, small differences in hematological indices and glucose tolerance between animals derived from AI and those derived from IVP, with a sex-dependent effect, tended to fade in the presence of RF. The addition of RF to the culture media could contribute to minimizing the phenotypical differences between the in vitro-derived and AI offspring, particularly in males.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Yingying Luo ◽  
Hongyuan Wang ◽  
Xianghai Zhou ◽  
Cuiqing Chang ◽  
Wei Chen ◽  
...  

Aims. Prediabetes has been proved as an important risk factor of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous studies have shown that both lifestyle intervention and pioglitazone may delay the development of diabetes in patients with prediabetes. However, no study has ever explored whether these interventions could revert prediabetes to normal glycemic status as the primary outcome. Interventions that may revert prediabetes back to normal glucose status would be of great clinical importance. Materials and Methods. We conducted a randomized, multicenter, 2 × 2 factorial designed study to examine whether intensive lifestyle intervention and/or pioglitazone could revert prediabetes to normal glucose tolerance. The participants were followed up for three years unless they reverted to normal glucose state or developed diabetes at the annual oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Reversion to normal glucose tolerance was confirmed on the basis of the results of OGTT. Results. In our study, 1945 eligible patients were ultimately randomized into four groups. In this three-year follow-up study, overall, 60.0%, 50.3%, 56.6% and 65.1% reverted back to normoglycemic state over 3 years of follow-up in the conventional lifestyle intervention plus placebo, intensive lifestyle intervention plus placebo, conventional lifestyle intervention plus pioglitazone, and intensive lifestyle intervention plus pioglitazone groups, respectively. Compared to the conventional lifestyle intervention plus placebo group, all the other three groups did not show any significant benefit in terms of reverting back to normoglycemic state. Conclusion. In our study, for patients with prediabetes, neither intensive lifestyle intervention nor pioglitazone had led to a higher reversion rate to normal glucose state. Trail registration.http://www.chictr.org.cn: ChiCTR-PRC-06000005.


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