hydroxyl group
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Dakota L. Pouncey ◽  
Dustyn A. Barnette ◽  
Riley W. Sinnott ◽  
Sarah J. Phillips ◽  
Noah R. Flynn ◽  

Coumadin (R/S-warfarin) anticoagulant therapy is highly efficacious in preventing the formation of blood clots; however, significant inter-individual variations in response risks over or under dosing resulting in adverse bleeding events or ineffective therapy, respectively. Levels of pharmacologically active forms of the drug and metabolites depend on a diversity of metabolic pathways. Cytochromes P450 play a major role in oxidizing R- and S-warfarin to 6-, 7-, 8-, 10-, and 4′-hydroxywarfarin, and warfarin alcohols form through a minor metabolic pathway involving reduction at the C11 position. We hypothesized that due to structural similarities with warfarin, hydroxywarfarins undergo reduction, possibly impacting their pharmacological activity and elimination. We modeled reduction reactions and carried out experimental steady-state reactions with human liver cytosol for conversion of rac-6-, 7-, 8-, 4′-hydroxywarfarin and 10-hydroxywarfarin isomers to the corresponding alcohols. The modeling correctly predicted the more efficient reduction of 10-hydroxywarfarin over warfarin but not the order of the remaining hydroxywarfarins. Experimental studies did not indicate any clear trends in the reduction for rac-hydroxywarfarins or 10-hydroxywarfarin into alcohol 1 and 2. The collective findings indicated the location of the hydroxyl group significantly impacted reduction selectivity among the hydroxywarfarins, as well as the specificity for the resulting metabolites. Based on studies with R- and S-7-hydroxywarfarin, we predicted that all hydroxywarfarin reductions are enantioselective toward R substrates and enantiospecific for S alcohol metabolites. CBR1 and to a lesser extent AKR1C3 reductases are responsible for those reactions. Due to the inefficiency of reactions, only reduction of 10-hydroxywarfarin is likely to be important in clearance of the metabolite. This pathway for 10-hydroxywarfarin may have clinical relevance as well given its anticoagulant activity and capacity to inhibit S-warfarin metabolism.

Wei-Zhuo Gai ◽  
Shi-Hu Zhang ◽  
Yang Yang ◽  
Kexi Sun ◽  
Hong Jia ◽  

Abstract Aluminum hydroxide is an eye catching and extensively researched adsorbent for fluoride removal and its defluoridation performance is closely related to the preparation method and crystalline phase. In this research, the defluoridation performances of aluminum hydroxides with different crystalline phases are compared and evaluated in terms of fluoride removal capacity, sensitivity to pH values and residual Al contents after defluoridation. It is found that the defluoridation performance of different aluminum hydroxides follows the order of boehmite > bayerite > gibbsite. The fluoride adsorption on aluminum hydroxides follows pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum defluoridation capacities of boehmite, bayerite and gibbsite are 42.08, 2.97 and 2.74 mg m−2, respectively. The pH values and FTIR analyses reveal that the ligand exchange between fluoride and surface hydroxyl groups is the fluoride removal mechanism. Different aluminum hydroxides have different surface hydroxyl group densities, which results in the different defluoridation capacities. This work provides a new idea to prepare aluminum hydroxide with outstanding defluoridation performance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Gaosheng Zhang ◽  
Jinglin Luo ◽  
Hanlin Cao ◽  
Shengping Hu ◽  
Huosheng Li ◽  

AbstractIn this study, amorphous hydrous titanium dioxide was synthesized by a facile precipitation method at room temperature, aiming to effectively remove thallium(I) from water. The titanium dioxide prepared using ammonia as precipitant (TiO2I) is more effective for thallium(I) uptake than the one synthesized with sodium hydroxide (TiO2II). The TiO2 obtained particles are amorphous, aggregates of many nanoparticles and irregular in shape. The thallium(I) uptake increases with the rise of solution pH value. Under neutral pH conditions, the maximal thallium(I) adsorption capacities of TiO2I and TiO2II are 302.6 and 230.3 mg/g, respectively, outperforming most of the reported adsorbents. The amorphous TiO2 has high selectivity towards thallium(I) in the presence of multiple cations such as K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+. Moreover, the TiO2I is efficient in removing thallium(I) from real river water and mining wastewater. Additionally, the spent TiO2I can be regenerated using hydrochloric acid solution and reused. The Tl(I) adsorption is achieved via replacing the H+ in hydroxyl group on the surface of TiO2 and forming inner-sphere surface complexes. Owing to its high efficiency, facile synthesis and environmental friendliness, the TiO2I has the potential to be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove Tl(I) from water.

2022 ◽  
Mohammad Saeed Vasheghani Farahani ◽  
Maryam Nikzad ◽  
Mohsen Ghorbani

Abstract In this work, a photocatalytic nanocomposite, Fe-doped ZnO/nanocellulose, was synthesized using an in-situ method and examined for methylene blue (MB) degradation. For this purpose, pure ZnO (PZ) was synthesized by the chemical precipitation method and then subjected to Fe+3 doping with different concentrations of Fe3+ (1, 3, and 5 mol%). The PZ and Fe-doped ZnO (FZ) samples were characterized using several standard analyses. UV-vis DRS analysis was also used to investigate the effect of Fe3+ doping on the bandgap of PZ. The doping of Fe3+ enhanced the photocatalytic activity of ZnO under visible light. The degradation efficiency of FZ samples (> 50%) was enhanced compared to the pristine ZnO (36.91%) during the same period. The catalyst with the highest degradation efficiency (94.21%) was then conjugated with broom corn stalk-derived nanocellulose (NC) at varying NC/ Zn2+ molar ratios (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4) and characterized by various analyses. The NC enhanced the hydroxyl group at the surface of the nanocomposite, consequently improved the photocatalytic performance of the synthesized samples. The ability of the optimized photocatalyst for MB degradation was assessed. The effect of operating parameters such as pH, catalyst dosage, and initial MB concentration was investigated and degradation efficiency of 98.84% was achieved at the optimum condition. Besides, photocatalyst regeneration study indicated the great photocatalytic performance of this nanocomposite with no loss in its degradation efficiency. The facile synthesis and fast degradation rate of this nanocomposite make it a promising candidate for real-world wastewater treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 ◽  
Kamlesh Sharma

Abstract: The mechanism of metal-catalyzed spiroketalization of propargyl acetonide is explored by employing DFT with the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) method. Acetonide is used as a regioselective regulator in the formation of monounsaturated spiroketal. The energies of transition states, intermediates, reactants and products are calculated to provide new insight into the mechanism of the reaction. The energetic features, validation of the observed trends in regioselectivity are conferred in terms of electronic indices via FMO analysis. The presence of acetonide facilitates a stepwise spiroketalization as it masks the competing nucleophile, and thus hydroxyl group present, exclusively acts as a nucleophile. The vinyl gold intermediate 3 is formed from 2 via activation barrier TS1. This is the first ring formation, which is 6-exo-dig cyclization. The intermediate 3 is converted into allenyl ether 4, which isomerizes to the intermediate oxocarbenium ion 5 via activation barrier TS2. The intermediate 5 cyclizes to 6 via TS3. This is the second ring formation. The intermediate 6 on protodeauration turns into 6,6-monounsaturated spiroketal 7. It is concluded that acetonide as a protecting group serves the purpose, and thus a wide range of spiroketals can be prepared, regioselectivity.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 300
Izabela Kurzydym ◽  
Izabela Czekaj

In the present study we propose a more promising catalyst for the deNOx process to eliminate harmful nitrogen oxides from the environment. The study was performed with a computer calculation using density functional theory (DFT) based on an ab initio method. Two zeolite catalysts, FAU and MFI, were selected with additional Cu–O–Zn bimetallic dimer adsorbed inside the pores of both zeolites. Based on the analysis of preliminary studies, the most probable way of co-adsorption of nitric oxide and ammonia was selected, which became the initial configuration for the reaction mechanism. Two types of mechanisms were proposed: with hydroxyl groups on a bridged position of the dimer or a hydroxyl group on one of the metal atoms of the dimer. Based on the results, it was determined that the FAU zeolite with a bimetallic dimer and an OH group on the zinc atom was the most efficient configuration with a relatively low energy barrier. The real advantage of the Cu–Zn system over FAU and MFI in hydrothermal conditions has been demonstrated in comparison to a conventional Cu–Cu catalyst.

SynOpen ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 06 (01) ◽  
pp. 7-10
Morteza Shiri ◽  
Maryam-Sadat Tonekaboni ◽  
Zahra Tanbakouchian ◽  
Soma Majedi

AbstractA base-mediated intramolecular hydroalkoxylation that was used to prepare a series of seven-membered S,O-heterocycles is described. 2-Thiopropargyl-3-hydroxymethyl quinolines were prepared starting from 2-mercaptoquinoline-3-carbaldehydes, via S-propargylation and reduction of a formyl group. Interestingly, 2-mercaptopropargyl-3-hydroxymethyl quinolines were converted into the corresponding oxathiepinoquinolines in the presence of t-BuOK. It is proposed that the S-propargyl moiety, in the presence of base, is converted into its allenyl isomer; subsequent addition of a hydroxyl group to the terminal double bond yields the 3-methyl-5H-[1,4]oxathiepino[5,6-b]quinoline in good to high yield. Notably, the procedure is adaptable to the conversion of N-propargyl indole-2-methanol into the corresponding intramolecular hydroalkoxylation product.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 94
Yanjie Liu ◽  
Fan Yang ◽  
Xiuhua Zhao ◽  
Siying Wang ◽  
Qilei Yang ◽  

Hesperetin (HES) is a key biological active ingredient in citrus peels, and is one of the natural flavonoids that attract the attention of researchers due to its numerous therapeutic bioactivities that have been identified in vitro. As a bioenhancer, piperine (PIP) can effectively improve the absorption of insoluble drugs in vivo. In the present study, a cocrystal of HES and PIP was successfully obtained through solution crystallization. The single-crystal structure was illustrated and comprehensive characterization of the cocrystal was conducted. The cocrystal was formed by two drug molecules at a molar ratio of 1:1, which contained O–H–O hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl and ether oxygen of PIP and the phenolic hydroxyl group of HES. In addition, a solubility experiment was performed on powder cocrystal in simulated gastrointestinal fluid, and the result revealed that the cocrystal improves the dissolution behavior of HES compared with that of the pure substance. Furthermore, HES’s bioavailability in the cocrystal was six times higher than that of pristine drugs. These results may provide an efficient oral formulation for HES.

2022 ◽  
Shu Chen ◽  
Ka-Yan Ng ◽  
Qiyuan Zhou ◽  
Houzong Yao ◽  
Zhiqin Deng ◽  

Pt(IV) complexes bearing axial carbonate linkages have drawn much attention recently. A synthetic method behind it allows to attach the hydroxyl group of bioactive ligands to the available hydroxyl group...

Fernando Silva ◽  
Gelson da Silva ◽  
Juliana Torres ◽  
Caue Ribeiro

Tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method and mechanically modified by high-energy ball milling. The experimental results demonstrate that the collision with zirconia balls produces slight changes in the crystalline, electronic, morphological, and surface properties of SnO2, which lead to an increase in the redox potential of the energy level and the formation of the hydroxyl group on the SnO2 surface. Moreover, these changes are intensified over the milling up to 90 min, directly affecting the photocatalytic performance, which was monitored by the rate of rhodamine B (RhB) degradation driven by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. As a result, all ground samples showed better photocatalytic activity than pristine SnO2 (Sn-cop). The maximum degradation of rhodamine B was ca. 75%, achieved with 90 min-milled SnO2 nanoparticles (Sn-M90), compared to the Sn-cop sample induced a 1.67 times higher degradation rate. The reaction mechanism suggests that its better photocatalytic activity may be associated with the higher increased redox potential of the valence and conduction bands and the formation of hydroxyl active sites on the catalyst surface principal oxidizing agent generated. Therefore, we conclude that the ball milling process is an efficient way to induce stable activation of oxide metal for photocatalytic applications.

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