excited state
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2022 ◽  
Vol 423 ◽  
pp. 127026
Sharma S.R.K.C. Yamijala ◽  
Ravindra Shinde ◽  
Kota Hanasaki ◽  
Zulfikhar A. Ali ◽  
Bryan M. Wong

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 516
You Qian ◽  
Fuchun Gong ◽  
Jiguang Li ◽  
Pan Ma ◽  
Hanming Zhu ◽  

Constructing excited-state intermolecular proton transfer (ESIPT-e) fluorophores represents significant challenges due to the harsh requirement of bearing a proton donor-acceptor (D-A) system and their matching proton donating-accepting ability in the same molecule. Herein, we synthesized a new-type ESIPT-e fluorophor (2-APC) using the “four-component one-pot” reaction. By the installing of a cyano-group on pyridine scaffold, the proton donating ability of -NH2 was greatly enhanced, enabling 2-APC to undergo ESIPT-e process. Surprisingly, 2-APC exhibited dual-emissions in protic solvents ethanol and normal fluorescence in aprotic solvents, which is vastly different from that of conventional ESIPT-a dyes. The ESIPT emission can be obviously suppressed by Fe3+ due to the coordination reaction of Fe3+ with the A-D system in 2-APC. From this basis, a highly sensitive and selective method was established using 2-APC as a fluorescent probe, which offers the sensitive detection of Fe3+ ranging from 0 to 13 μM with the detection limit of 7.5 nM. The recovery study of spiked Fe3+ measured by the probe showed satisfactory results (97.2103.4%) with the reasonable RSD ranging from 3.1 to 3.8%. Moreover, 2-APC can also exhibit aggregation-induced effect in poor solvent or solid-state, eliciting strong red fluorescence. 2-APC was also applied to cell-imaging, exhibiting good cell-permeability, biocompatibility and color rendering. This multi-mode emission of 2-APC is significant departure from that of conventional extended p-conjugated systems and ESIPT dyes based on a flat and rigid molecular design. The “one-pot synthesis” strategy for the construction of ESIPT molecules pioneered a new route to achieve tricolor-emissive fluorophores.

2022 ◽  
Jia-Wei Wang ◽  
Xian Zhang ◽  
Michael Karnahl ◽  
Zhi-Mei Luo ◽  
Zizi Li ◽  

Abstract The utilization of a fully noble-metal-free system for photocatalytic CO2 reduction remains a fundamental challenge, demanding the precise design of photosensitizers and catalysts, as well as the exploitation of their intermolecular interactions to facilitate electron delivery. Herein, we have implemented triple modulations on catalyst, photosensitizer and coordinative interaction between them for high-performance light-driven CO2 reduction. In this study, heteroleptic copper and cobalt phthalocyanine complexes were selected as photosensitizers and catalysts, respectively. An over ten-fold improvement in light-driven reduction of CO2 to CO is achieved for the catalysts with appending electron-withdrawing substituents for optimal CO-desorption ability. In addition, pyridine substituents were implanted at the backbone of the phenanthroline moiety of the Cu(I) photosensitizers and the effect of their axial coordinative interaction with the catalyst was tested. The combined results of 1H NMR titration experiment, steady-state/transient photoluminescence, and transient absorption spectroscopy confirm the coordinative interaction and reductive quenching pathway in photocatalysis corroboratively. It has been found that the catalytic performances of the coordinatively interacted systems are unexpectedly reverse to those with the pyridine-free Cu(I) photosensitizers. Moreover, the latter system enables a very high quantum efficiency up to 63.5% at 425 nm with a high selectivity exceeding 99% for CO2-to-CO conversion. As determined by time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy and DFT calculation, the replacement of phenyl by pyridyl groups in the Cu(I) photosensitizer favors a stronger flattening and larger torsional angle change of the overall excited state geometry upon photoexcitation, which explains the decreased lifetime of the triplet excited state. Our work promotes the systematic multi-pathway optimizations on the catalyst, photosensitizer and their interactions for advanced CO2 photoreduction.

Synthesis ◽  
2022 ◽  
Akira Shiozuka ◽  
Kohei Sekine ◽  
Yoichiro Kuninobu

Pyrene is one of the most attractive polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in photochemistry. Based on their redox properties, pyrenes have potential as photosensitizers. In this review, we aim to summarize recent developments in pyrene-catalyzed photoinduced organic reactions via the process of energy transfer or single electron transfer based on the excited state of pyrenes. 1. Introduction 2. Photolysis involving N–O bond cleavage or decarboxylation 3. (Cyclo)addition reactions with styrenes 4. Transformations via cleavage of C–F, C–I, C–S, and C–N bonds 5. Reactions based on sensitization-initiated electron transfer (SenI-ET) 6. Miscellaneous transformations 7. Conclusion

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
D. Mayer ◽  
F. Lever ◽  
D. Picconi ◽  
J. Metje ◽  
S. Alisauskas ◽  

AbstractThe conversion of photon energy into other energetic forms in molecules is accompanied by charge moving on ultrafast timescales. We directly observe the charge motion at a specific site in an electronically excited molecule using time-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (TR-XPS). We extend the concept of static chemical shift from conventional XPS by the excited-state chemical shift (ESCS), which is connected to the charge in the framework of a potential model. This allows us to invert TR-XPS spectra to the dynamic charge at a specific atom. We demonstrate the power of TR-XPS by using sulphur 2p-core-electron-emission probing to study the UV-excited dynamics of 2-thiouracil. The method allows us to discover that a major part of the population relaxes to the molecular ground state within 220–250 fs. In addition, a 250-fs oscillation, visible in the kinetic energy of the TR-XPS, reveals a coherent exchange of population among electronic states.

2022 ◽  
Shomik Verma ◽  
Miguel Rivera ◽  
David O. Scanlon ◽  
Aron Walsh

Understanding the excited state properties of molecules provides insights into how they interact with light. These interactions can be exploited to design compounds for photochemical applications, including enhanced spectral conversion of light to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic cells. While chemical discovery is time- and resource-intensive experimentally, computational chemistry can be used to screen large-scale databases for molecules of interest in a procedure known as high-throughput virtual screening. The first step usually involves a high-speed but low-accuracy method to screen large numbers of molecules (potentially millions) so only the best candidates are evaluated with expensive methods. However, use of a coarse first-pass screening method can potentially result in high false positive or false negative rates. Therefore, this study uses machine learning to calibrate a high-throughput technique (xTB-sTDA) against a higher accuracy one (TD-DFT). Testing the calibration model shows a ~5-fold decrease in error in-domain and a ~3-fold decrease out-of-domain. The resulting mean absolute error of ~0.14 eV is in line with previous work in machine learning calibrations and out-performs previous work in linear calibration of xTB-sTDA. We then apply the calibration model to screen a 250k molecule database and map inaccuracies of xTB-sTDA in chemical space. We also show generalizability of the workflow by calibrating against a higher-level technique (CC2), yielding a similarly low error. Overall, this work demonstrates machine learning can be used to develop a both cheap and accurate method for large-scale excited state screening, enabling accelerated molecular discovery across a variety of disciplines.

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