Protein Substrates
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Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1741
Author(s):  
Carla M. Kumbale ◽  
Eberhard O. Voit ◽  
Qiang Zhang

Signal amplification in biomolecular networks converts a linear input to a steeply sigmoid output and is central to a number of cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, homeostasis, adaptation, and biological rhythms. One canonical signal amplifying motif is zero-order ultrasensitivity that is mediated through the posttranslational modification (PTM) cycle of signaling proteins. The functionality of this signaling motif has been examined conventionally by supposing that the total amount of the protein substrates remains constant, as by the classical Koshland–Goldbeter model. However, covalent modification of signaling proteins often results in changes in their stability, which affects the abundance of the protein substrates. Here, we use mathematical models to explore the signal amplification properties in such scenarios and report some novel aspects. Our analyses indicate that PTM-induced protein stabilization brings the enzymes closer to saturation. As a result, ultrasensitivity may emerge or is greatly enhanced, with a steeper sigmoidal response, higher magnitude, and generally longer response time. In cases where PTM destabilizes the protein, ultrasensitivity can be regained through changes in the activities of the involved enzymes or from increased protein synthesis. Importantly, ultrasensitivity is not limited to modified or unmodified protein substrates—when protein turnover is considered, the total free protein substrate can also exhibit ultrasensitivity under several conditions. When full enzymatic reactions are used instead of Michaelis–Menten kinetics for the modeling, the total free protein substrate can even exhibit nonmonotonic dose–response patterns. It is conceivable that cells use inducible protein stabilization as a strategy in the signaling network to boost signal amplification while saving energy by keeping the protein substrate levels low at basal conditions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Supawadee Maneekesorn ◽  
Ellen Knuepfer ◽  
Judith L. Green ◽  
Parichat Prommana ◽  
Chairat Uthaipibull ◽  
...  

AbstractThe inducible Di-Cre system was used to delete the putative ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 13 gene (ubc13) of Plasmodium falciparum to study its role in ubiquitylation and the functional consequence during the parasite asexual blood stage. Deletion resulted in a significant reduction of parasite growth in vitro, reduced ubiquitylation of the Lys63 residue of ubiquitin attached to protein substrates, and an increased sensitivity of the parasite to both the mutagen, methyl methanesulfonate and the antimalarial drug dihydroartemisinin (DHA), but not chloroquine. The parasite was also sensitive to the UBC13 inhibitor NSC697923. The data suggest that this gene does code for an ubiquitin conjugating enzyme responsible for K63 ubiquitylation, which is important in DNA repair pathways as was previously demonstrated in other organisms. The increased parasite sensitivity to DHA in the absence of ubc13 function indicates that DHA may act primarily through this pathway and that inhibitors of UBC13 may both enhance the efficacy of this antimalarial drug and directly inhibit parasite growth.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Flurina Boehi ◽  
Patrick Manetsch ◽  
Michael O. Hottiger

AbstractSignaling cascades provide integrative and interactive frameworks that allow the cell to respond to signals from its environment and/or from within the cell itself. The dynamic regulation of mammalian cell signaling pathways is often modulated by cascades of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs). ADP-ribosylation is a PTM that is catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases and manifests as mono- (MARylation) or poly- (PARylation) ADP-ribosylation depending on the addition of one or multiple ADP-ribose units to protein substrates. ADP-ribosylation has recently emerged as an important cell regulator that impacts a plethora of cellular processes, including many intracellular signaling events. Here, we provide an overview of the interplay between the intracellular diphtheria toxin-like ADP-ribosyltransferase (ARTD) family members and five selected signaling pathways (including NF-κB, JAK/STAT, Wnt-β-catenin, MAPK, PI3K/AKT), which are frequently described to control or to be controlled by ADP-ribosyltransferases and how these interactions impact the cellular responses.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhejian Ji ◽  
Hao Li ◽  
Daniele Peterle ◽  
Joao A Paulo ◽  
Scott B Ficarro ◽  
...  

The hexameric Cdc48 ATPase (p97 or VCP in mammals) cooperates with its cofactor Ufd1/Npl4 to extract polyubiquitinated proteins from membranes or macromolecular complexes for degradation by the proteasome. Here, we clarify how the Cdc48 complex unfolds its substrates and translocates polypeptides with branchpoints. The Cdc48 complex recognizes primarily polyubiquitin chains, rather than the attached substrate. Cdc48 and Ufd1/Npl4 cooperatively bind the polyubiquitin chain, resulting in the unfolding of one ubiquitin molecule (initiator). Next, the ATPase pulls on the initiator ubiquitin and moves all ubiquitin molecules linked to its C-terminus through the central pore of the hexameric double-ring, causing transient ubiquitin unfolding. When the ATPase reaches the isopeptide bond of the substrate, it can translocate and unfold both N- and C-terminal segments. Ubiquitins linked to the branchpoint of the initiator dissociate from Ufd1/Npl4 and move outside the central pore, resulting in the release of unfolded, polyubiquitinated substrate from Cdc48.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Alan Cowman ◽  
Anthony Hodder ◽  
Janni Christensen ◽  
Stephen Scally ◽  
Tony Triglia ◽  
...  

Abstract Plasmepsin IX (PMIX) and X (PMX) are aspartyl proteases of Plasmodium spp. that play essential roles in parasite egress, invasion and development. Consequently, they are important drug targets for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. WM4 and WM382 are potent inhibitors of PMIX and PMX that block invasion of liver and blood stages and transmission to mosquitoes. WM4 specifically inhibits PMX whilst WM382 is a dual inhibitor of PMIX and PMX. To understand the function of PMIX and PMX proteases we identified new protein substrates in P. falciparum and together with detailed kinetic analyses and structural analyses identified key molecular interactions in the active site responsible for the specificity of WM4 and WM382 inhibition. The crystal structures of PMX apo enzyme and the protease/drug complexes of PMX/WM382 and PMX/WM4 for P. falciparum and P. vivax have been solved. We show PMIX and PMX have similar substrate selectivity, however, there are distinct differences for both peptide and full-length protein substrates through differences in localised 3-dimensional structures for the enzyme substrate-binding cleft and substrate interface. The differences in affinities of WM4 and WM382 binding for PMIX and PMX map to variations in surface interactions with each protease in the S' region of the active sites. Crystal structures of PMX reveal interactions and mechanistic detail on the selectivity of drug binding which will be important for further development of clinical candidates against these important molecular targets.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2660
Author(s):  
Kartikeya Vijayasimha ◽  
Brian P. Dolan

Neuronal precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 8 (NEDD8) is a ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) whose canonical function involves binding to, and thus, activating Cullin–Ring finger Ligases (CRLs), one of the largest family of ubiquitin ligases in the eukaryotic cell. However, in recent years, several non-canonical protein substrates of NEDD8 have been identified. Here we attempt to review the recent literature regarding non-canonical NEDDylation of substrates with a particular focus on how the covalent modification of NEDD8 alters the protein substrate. Like much in the study of ubiquitin and UBLs, there are no clear and all-encompassing explanations to satisfy the textbooks. In some instances, NEDD8 modification appears to alter the substrates localization, particularly during times of stress. NEDDylation may also have conflicting impacts upon a protein’s stability: some reports indicate NEDDylation may protect against degradation whereas others show NEDDylation can promote degradation. We also examine how many of the in vitro studies measuring non-canonical NEDDylation were conducted and compare those conditions to those which may occur in vivo, such as cancer progression. It is likely that the conditions used to study non-canonical NEDDylation are similar to some types of cancers, such as glioblastoma, colon and rectal cancers, and lung adenocarcinomas. Although the full outcomes of non-canonical NEDDylation remain unknown, our review of the literature suggests that researchers keep an open mind to the situations where this modification occurs and determine the functional impacts of NEDD8-modification to the specific substrates which they study.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anthony N. Hodder ◽  
Stephen Scally ◽  
Tony Triglia ◽  
Anna Ngo ◽  
Richard W. Birkinshaw ◽  
...  

Abstract Plasmepsin IX (PMIX) and X (PMX) are aspartyl proteases of Plasmodium spp. that play essential roles in parasite egress, invasion and development. Consequently, they are important drug targets for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. WM4 and WM382 are potent inhibitors of PMIX and PMX that block invasion of liver and blood stages and transmission to mosquitoes. WM4 specifically inhibits PMX whilst WM382 is a dual inhibitor of PMIX and PMX. To understand the function of PMIX and PMX proteases we identified new protein substrates in P. falciparum and together with detailed kinetic analyses and structural analyses identified key molecular interactions in the active site responsible for the specificity of WM4 and WM382 inhibition. The crystal structures of PMX apo enzyme and the protease/drug complexes of PMX/WM382 and PMX/WM4 for P. falciparum and P. vivax have been solved. We show PMIX and PMX have similar substrate selectivity, however, there are distinct differences for both peptide and full-length protein substrates through differences in localised 3-dimensional structures for the enzyme substrate-binding cleft and substrate interface. The differences in affinities of WM4 and WM382 binding for PMIX and PMX map to variations in surface interactions with each protease in the S' region of the active sites. Crystal structures of PMX reveal interactions and mechanistic detail on the selectivity of drug binding which will be important for further development of clinical candidates against these important molecular targets.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Andrew J. Hayes ◽  
Jessica M. Lewis ◽  
Mark R. Davies ◽  
Nichollas E. Scott

AbstractGlycosylation is increasingly recognised as a common protein modification within bacterial proteomes. While great strides have been made in identifying species that contain glycosylation systems, our understanding of the proteins and sites targeted by these systems is far more limited. Within this work we explore the conservation of glycoproteins and glycosylation sites across the pan-Burkholderia glycoproteome. Using a multi-protease glycoproteomic approach, we generate high-confidence glycoproteomes in two widely utilized B. cenocepacia strains, K56-2 and H111. This resource reveals glycosylation occurs exclusively at Serine residues and that glycoproteins/glycosylation sites are highly conserved across B. cenocepacia isolates. This preference for glycosylation at Serine residues is observed across at least 9 Burkholderia glycoproteomes, supporting that Serine is the dominant residue targeted by PglL-mediated glycosylation across the Burkholderia genus. Combined, this work demonstrates that PglL enzymes of the Burkholderia genus are Serine-preferring oligosaccharyltransferases that target conserved and shared protein substrates.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Conrado C. Gonçalves ◽  
Itai Sharon ◽  
T. Martin Schmeing ◽  
Carlos H. I. Ramos ◽  
Jason C. Young

AbstractIn human cells under stress conditions, misfolded polypeptides can form potentially cytotoxic insoluble aggregates. To eliminate aggregates, the HSP70 chaperone machinery extracts and resolubilizes polypeptides for triage to refolding or degradation. Yeast and bacterial chaperones of the small heat-shock protein (sHSP) family can bind substrates at early stages of misfolding, during the aggregation process. The co-aggregated sHSPs then facilitate downstream disaggregation by HSP70. Because it is unknown whether a human sHSP has this activity, we investigated the disaggregation role of human HSPB1. HSPB1 co-aggregated with unfolded protein substrates, firefly luciferase and mammalian lactate dehydrogenase. The co-aggregates formed with HSPB1 were smaller and more regularly shaped than those formed in its absence. Importantly, co-aggregation promoted the efficient disaggregation and refolding of the substrates, led by HSP70. HSPB1 itself was also extracted during disaggregation, and its homo-oligomerization ability was not required. Therefore, we propose that a human sHSP is an integral part of the chaperone network for protein disaggregation.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Carla Kumbale ◽  
Eberhard Voit ◽  
Qiang Zhang

Signal amplification converts a linear input to a steeply sigmoid output and is central to cellular functions. One canonical signal amplifying motif is zero-order ultrasensitivity through the posttranslational modification (PTM) cycle signaling proteins. The functionality of this signaling motif has been examined conventionally by supposing that the total amount of the protein substrates remains constant. However, covalent modification of signaling proteins often results in changes in their stability, which affects the abundance of the protein substrates. Here we use a mathematical model to explore the signal amplification properties in such scenarios. Our simulations indicate that PTM-induced protein stabilization brings the enzymes closer to saturation, and as a result, ultrasensitivity may emerge or is greatly enhanced, with a steeper sigmoidal response of higher magnitude and generally longer response time. In cases where PTM destabilizes the protein, ultrasensitivity can be regained through changes in the activities of the involved enzymes or from increased protein synthesis. Interestingly, ultrasensitivity is not limited to modified or unmodified protein substrates; the total protein substrate can also exhibit ultrasensitivity. It is conceivable that cells use inducible protein stabilization as a way to boost signal amplification while saving energy by keeping the protein substrate at low basal conditions.


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