Negative ions are an important constituent of the spatial afterglow of atmospheric pressure plasmas, where the fundamental plasma-substrate interactions take place that are vital for applications such as biomedicine, material synthesis, and ambient air treatment. In this work, we use laser-induced photodetachment to liberate electrons from negative ions in the afterglow region of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet interacting with an argon-oxygen mixture, and microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy (MCRS) to detect the photodetached electrons. This diagnostic technique allows for the determination of the electron density and the eﬀective collision frequency before, during and after the laser pulse was shot through the measurement volume with nanosecond time resolution. From a laser saturation study, it is concluded that O− is the dominant negative ion in the afterglow. Moreover, the decay of the photodetached electron density is found to be dominantly driven by the (re)formation of O− by dissociative attachment of electrons with O2. As a consequence, we identiﬁed the species and process responsible for the formation of negative ions in the spatial afterglow in our experiment.
To simulate the I-V diagram of plasma homogeneous and filamentary discharge with equivalent circuit model more accurately, this study employed a breaker and passive circuit components and calculated the discharge parameters, such as equivalent discharge resistances and potential distribution etc., in atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ). In addition, this study calculated the gas-gap and dielectric capacitances of the APPJ and added a power supply equivalent circuit. Compared with other circuit models that adopted switches or a time-controlled current source to simulate the discharges, our present circuit model used a breakdown-voltage-controlled breaker for the homogeneous discharge and resistors with high-frequency switches for the filamentary discharge. We employed potential simulation to obtain the equivalent dielectric capacitance in the APPJ and then derived the gas-gap capacitance. We also replaced the ideal sine wave power supply with the equivalent circuit of the common double-peak-waveform power supply. The MATLAB Simulink was used to construct an equivalent circuit model and the discharge area ratio, breakdown voltage and filamentary equivalent resistance were obtained via I-V waveform fitting. We measured the plasma I-V waveform with a 20-kHz frequency, various voltages (6, 12, and 15 kV), a gas flow rate of 30 SLM, and two types of gas (Ar and He). The simulated and experimental I-V waveforms were very close under different conditions. In summary, the proposed equivalent circuit model more meaningfully describes the plasma physics to simulate homogenous and filamentary discharge, achieving results that were compatible with our experimental observations. The findings can help with investigating plasma discharge mechanisms and full-model simulations of plasma.
Plasma co-polymers (co-p) were deposited with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) using a precursor mixture containing hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and limonene. A coating with fragments from both precursors and with siloxane, carbonyl and nitrogen functional groups was deposited. The flow rate of limonene was found to be an important parameter for plasma co-polymerization to tune the formation and structure of the functional groups. The FTIR and XPS analysis indicates that with increasing flow rate of limonene a higher proportion of carbon is bound to silicon. This is related to a stronger incorporation of fragments from limonene into the siloxane network and a weaker fragmentation of HMDSO. The formation mechanism of the nitroxide and carboxyl groups can be mainly differentiated into in-plasma and post-plasma reactions, respectively.