air plasma
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
F. E. P. Diógenes ◽  
S. R. C. Nascimento ◽  
C. Alves Junior ◽  
E. P. Paiva ◽  
S. B. Torres ◽  

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of atmospheric plasma application on the inactivation of fungi on the surface of Erythrina velutina seeds and on isolated fungal colonies. Two experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design. First, plasma was applied to the surface of the seeds using helium gas and atmospheric plasma for 3, 6, and 9 min in addition to the control (untreated seeds), constituting seven treatments with five repetitions each. In the second experiment, Petri dishes containing the inoculum of different fungi were treated with atmospheric air plasma for 3, 6, and 9 min (Air-3, Air-6, and Air-9) and were compared with untreated fungi in Petri dishes without treatment (control), totaling four treatments and five repetitions each. We found that the application of atmospheric air plasma to E. velutina seeds for 9 min had an antimicrobial effect on the fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp., Brachysporium sp., and Rhizopus sp. The formation of fungal colonies isolated from E. velutina seeds was also inhibited by 3 min of exposure to atmospheric air plasma, except for A. niger, whose inhibition occurred after 6 min of exposure to atmospheric plasma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Sebastian Dahle ◽  
Kavyashree Srinivasa ◽  
Jure Žigon ◽  
Arnaud Maxime Cheumani Yona ◽  
Georg Avramidis ◽  

The use of wood-based materials in building and construction is constantly increasing as environmental aspects and sustainability gain importance. For structural applications, however, there are many examples where hybrid material systems are needed to fulfil the specific mechanical requirements of the individual application. In particular, metal reinforcements are a common solution to enhance the mechanical properties of a wooden structural element. Metal-reinforced wood components further help to reduce cross-sectional sizes of load-bearing structures, improve the attachment of masonry or other materials, enhance the seismic safety and tremor dissipation capacity, as well as the durability of the structural elements in highly humid environments and under high permanent mechanical load. A critical factor to achieve these benefits, however, is the mechanical joint between the different material classes, namely the wood and metal parts. Currently, this joint is formed using epoxy or polyurethane (PU) adhesives, the former yielding highest mechanical strengths, whereas the latter presents a compromise between mechanical and economical constraints. Regarding sustainability and economic viability, the utilization of different adhesive systems would be preferable, whereas mechanical stabilities yielded for metal-wood joints do not permit for the use of other common adhesive systems in such structural applications. This study extends previous research on the use of non-thermal air plasma pretreatments for the formation of wood-metal joints. The plasma treatments of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] wood and anodized (E6/EV1) aluminum AlMgSi0.5 (6060) F22 were optimized, using water contact angle measurements to determine the effect and homogeneity of plasma treatments. The adhesive bond strengths of plasma-pretreated and untreated specimens were tested with commercial 2-component epoxy, PU, melamine-urea formaldehyde (MUF), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), and construction adhesive glue systems. The influence of plasma treatments on the mechanical performance of the compounds was evaluated for one selected glue system via bending strength tests. The impact of the hybrid interface between metal and wood was isolated for the tests by using five-layer laminates from three wood lamellae enclosing two aluminum plates, thereby excluding the influence of congeneric wood-wood bonds. The effect of the plasma treatments is discussed based on the chemical and physical modifications of the substrates and the respective interaction mechanisms with the glue systems.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262632
Tsukasa Nakatoh ◽  
Takuji Osaki ◽  
Sohma Tanimoto ◽  
Md. Golam Sarowar Jahan ◽  
Tomohisa Kawakami ◽  

In the field of cell and tissue engineering, there is an increasing demand for techniques to spatially control the adhesion of cells to substrates of desired sizes and shapes. Here, we describe two novel methods for fabricating a substrate for adhesion of cells to a defined area. In the first method, the surface of the coverslip or plastic dish was coated with Lipidure, a non-adhesive coating material, and air plasma was applied through a mask with holes, to confer adhesiveness to the surface. In the second method, after the surface of the coverslip was coated with gold by sputtering and then with Lipidure; the Lipidure coat was locally removed using a novel scanning laser ablation method. These methods efficiently confined cells within the adhesive area and enabled us to follow individual cells for a longer duration, compared to the currently available commercial substrates. By following single cells within the confined area, we were able to observe several new aspects of cell behavior in terms of cell division, cell–cell collisions, and cell collision with the boundary between adhesive and non-adhesive areas.

P Subramani ◽  
M Sathishkumar ◽  
M Manikandan ◽  
S Senthil Kumaran ◽  
V Sreenivasulu ◽  

Abstract Thermal barrier coating plays a vital role in protecting materials' surfaces from high-temperature environment conditions. This work compares the demeanour of uncoated and air plasma sprayed Cr3C2-25NiCr and NiCrMoNb coated X8CrNiMoVNb16-13 substrates subjected to air oxidation and molten salt (Na2SO4 + 60%V2O5) environment condition at 900°C for 50 cycles. Coating characteristics have been analyzed through microstructure, thickness, porosity, hardness, and bond strength. SEM, EDS and XRD analysis were used to analyze corrosion's product at the end of the 50th cycle. Coating microstructures showed a uniform laminar structure that is adherent and denser with a coating thickness of 150 ± 20 μm and porosity less than 3.5%. The Microhardness of both the coated substrates were higher than that of the bare substrate. Cr3C2-25NiCr and NiCrMoNb coating bond strength was 38.9 MPa and 42.5 MPa. Thermogravimetric analysis showed the parabolic rate law of oxidation for all the substrates in both environments. In the molten salt environment, all the substrates exhibited higher weight gain compared to the air oxidation environment. In both environmental conditions, the uncoated X8CrNiMoVNb16-13 alloy exhibited higher weight gain than the coated substrates. The formation of Cr2O3, NiO and spinel oxide NiCr2O4 offers good resistance to corrosion to all the substrates in both the environmental condition. However, the presence of Mo and Nb significantly accelerated the corrosion of the substrate, thereby increasing the weight of the NiCrMoNb substrate. It is observed that Cr3C2-25NiCr and NiCrMoNb coating over the X8CrNiMoVNb16-13 substrate significantly protected the substrate against the hot corrosion than the bare alloy exposed to similar environmental conditions.

Rogerio S. Lima

AbstractThere is a strong driving force to improve the production efficiency of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) manufactured via air plasma spray (APS). To address this need, the high-enthalpy APS torch Axial III Plus was employed to successfully manufacture TBCs by spraying a commercial YSZ feedstock at powder feed rate of 100 g/min using an optimized set of N2/H2 spray parameters; which yielded an impressive YSZ deposition efficiency (DE) value of 70%. This exact same set of optimized spray parameters was used to manufacture the same identical YSZ TBC (over ~160 µm-thick bond-coated substrates) but at two distinct YSZ thickness levels: (i) ~420 µm-thick and (ii) ~930 µm-thick. In spite of the high YSZ feed rate and DE levels, the YSZ TBC revealed a ~14% porous (conventional looking) microstructure, without segmented cracking or horizontal delamination at both thickness levels. The bond strength values measured via the ASTM C633 standard for the ~420 µm-thick and ~930 µm-thick YSZ TBCs were ~13.0 and ~11.6 MPa (respectively); which are among at the upper end values reported in the literature. After the first objective was attained, the second key objective of this work was to evaluate the thermal insulating effectiveness of these two as-sprayed YSZ TBCs. To achieve this objective, a thermal gradient laser-rig was employed to generate a temperature reduction (ΔT) along the TBC-coated coupons under different laser power levels. These distinct laser power levels generated YSZ TBC surface temperatures varying for 1100 to 1500 °C, for the ~420 µm-thick YSZ TBC, and from 1100 to 1680 °C YSZ TBC ~930 µm-thick YSZ TBC. The respective ΔT values for both TBCs are reported. The results of this engineering paper are promising regarding the possibility of improving considerably the manufacturing efficiency of industrial quality conventional-looking porous YSZ TBCs, by using a high-enthalpy N2-based APS torch. This is the first paper published in the open literature showing R&D results of coatings manufactured via the Axial III Plus APS torch.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 013504
Sansan Peng ◽  
Miao Qi ◽  
Huaiyan Zhang ◽  
Jin Zhang ◽  
Rong Liu ◽  

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