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2021 ◽  
Vol 124 ◽  
pp. 108354
Author(s):  
Ian Minshall ◽  
Laura Buckels ◽  
Peter Cox ◽  
Humaira Jamroze ◽  
Tara Jeyam ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258674
Author(s):  
Thilini Sudeshika ◽  
Mark Naunton ◽  
Louise S. Deeks ◽  
Jackson Thomas ◽  
Gregory M. Peterson ◽  
...  

Background The inclusion of pharmacists into general practices in Australia has expanded in recent years. This systematic review aimed to synthesise the literature of qualitative and quantitative studies, and identify the knowledge gaps, related to pharmacists working in general practice in Australia. Methods This systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed, EBSCOhost, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched from the inception of databases to January 2021. The search was focused on studies investigating general practice pharmacists in Australia. The quality of each study was appraised using the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool criteria. The narrative synthesis approach was utilised to describe data due to the heterogeneity among study designs and measures. Results Twenty-five studies were included in this review. General practice pharmacists engaged in various non-dispensing patient care services, with medication management reviews being the primary activity reported. General practice pharmacists’ characteristics and an environment with a willingness of collaboration were the notable influencing factors for successfully including pharmacists in general practices. Factors that posed a challenge to the adoption of general practice pharmacists were lack of funding and other resources, poorly defined roles, and absence of mentoring/training. Conclusion This review has summarised the characteristics, activities, benefits, barriers, and facilitators of including pharmacists in general practices in Australia. General practice pharmacists are well accepted by stakeholders, and they can engage in a range of patient-centred activities to benefit patients. There is a need for more robust research to explore the patient and economic outcomes related to clinical activities that a pharmacist can perform in general practice, as a foundation to developing an appropriate and sustainable funding model. The findings of this review will be beneficial for pharmacists, researchers, policymakers, and readers who wish to implement the role of general practice pharmacists in the future.


BJGP Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. BJGPO.2021.0129
Author(s):  
Katharine Ann Wallis ◽  
Carolyn Raina Elley ◽  
Simon A. Moyes ◽  
Arier Lee ◽  
Joanna Frances Hikaka ◽  
...  

BackgroundSafer prescribing in general practice may help to decrease preventable adverse drug events (ADE) and related hospitalisations.AimTo test effect of SPACE on high-risk prescribing of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or antiplatelet medicines and related hospitalisations.Design & settingPragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial in general practice. Participants were patients at increased risk of ADEs from NSAIDs and/or antiplatelet medicines at baseline. SPACE comprises automated search to generate for each general practitioner (GP)a list of patients with high-risk prescribing; pharmacist outreach to provide education and one-on-one review of list with GP; and automated letter inviting patients to seek medication review with their GP.MethodPrimary outcome was difference in high-risk prescribing of NSAIDs and/or antiplatelet medicines at 6 months; secondary outcomes included high-risk prescribing for gastrointestinal, renal or cardiac ADEs separately; 12-month outcomes; and related ADE hospitalisations.ResultsWe recruited 39 practices with 205 GPs and 191,593 patients including 21,877 (11.4%) participants, 1,479 (6.8%) with high-risk prescribing. High-risk prescribing improved in both groups at 6 and 12 months compared with baseline. At 6 months, there was no significant difference between groups (OR: 0.99 (0.87, 1.13)) although SPACE improved more for gastrointestinal ADEs (0.81 (0.68, 0.96)). At 12 months, the control group improved more (OR: 1.29 (1.11, 1.49)). There was no significant difference for related hospitalisations.ConclusionFurther work is needed to identify scalable interventions that support safer prescribing in general practice. The use of automated search and feedback plus letter to patient warrants further exploration.


BJGP Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. BJGPO.2021.0108
Author(s):  
David N Blane ◽  
Sara MacDonald ◽  
Catherine A O'Donnell

BackgroundIt is estimated that nearly 600,000 cancer cases in the UK could have been avoided in the last five years if people had healthier lifestyles, with the principle modifiable risk factors being smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption and inactivity. There is growing interest in the use of cancer risk information in general practice to encourage lifestyle modification.AimTo explore the views and experiences of patients and practitioners in relation to cancer prevention and cancer risk discussions in general practice.Design & settingQualitative study among patient and practitioners in general practices in Glasgow, UK.MethodSemi-structured interviews were conducted with nine practitioners (5 GPs and four practice nurses, recruited purposively from practices based on list size and deprivation status) and 13 patients (aged 30–60, with two or more specified co-morbidities).ResultsCurrently, cancer risk discussions focus on smoking and cancer, with links between alcohol/obesity and cancer rarely made. There was support for the use of the personalised cancer risk tool as an additional resource in primary care. Practitioners felt practice nurses were best placed to use it. Use in planned appointments (eg, chronic disease reviews) was preferred over opportunistic use. Concerns were expressed, however, about generating anxiety, time constraints, and widening inequalities.ConclusionsHealth behaviour change is complex and the provision of information alone is unlikely to have significant effects. Personalised risk tools may have a role, but important concerns about their use – particularly in areas of socio-economic disadvantage – remain.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Charlotte Hespe ◽  
Edwina Brown ◽  
Lucie Rychetnik

Abstract BackgroundQuality-improvement collaborative (QIC) initiatives aim to reduce gaps in clinical care provided in the healthcare system. This study provides a qualitative evaluation of a QIC project (QPulse) in Australian general practice focused on improving cardiovascular disease (CVD) assessment and management. MethodsThis qualitative-methods study explored implementing a QIC project by a Primary Health Network (PHN) in 34 general practices. Qualitative analyses examined in-depth interviews with participants and stakeholders focusing on barriers and enablers to implementation in our health system. They were analysed thematically using the Complex Systems Improvement framework (CSI), focusing on strategy, culture, structure, workforce, and technology.ResultsDespite strategic engagement with QPulse objectives across the health system, implementation barriers associated with this program were considerable for both PHN and the general practices. Adoption of the QIC process was reliant on engaged leadership, practice culture, systems for clear communication, tailored education and regular clinical audit and review. Practice ownership, culture and governance, rather than practice size and location, were related to successful implementation. Financial incentives for both the PHN and general practice were identified as prerequisites for systematised quality improvement (QI) projects in the future, along with individualised support and education provided to each practice. Technology was both an enabler and a barrier, and the PHN was seen as key to assisting the successful adoption of the available tools. ConclusionsImplementation of QI programs remains a potential tool for achieving better health outcomes in General Practice. However, enablers such as individualised education and support provided via a meso-level organisation, financial incentives, and IT tools and support are crucial if the full potential of QI programs are to be realised in the Australian healthcare setting. Trial registrationACTRN12615000108516, UTN U1111-1163-7995.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xin Rao ◽  
Li Luo ◽  
Qiaoli Su ◽  
Xingyue Wang

Abstract Objective:The participation of general practice (GP) residents in COVID-19 prevention and control tasks touched workload participation in public health and disease prevention and control and was also a rare, valuable training experience for the residents and research material for medical education . This experience contributed to the understanding of three key points: First, was the content of the COVID-19 prevention task suited to them, or did it overload them in the present? Second, their competence in the COVID-19 prevention task reflected whether the early medical school training was sufficient or not .Third, what can be drawn from this study to promote public health training in the future? This study aimed to explore these issues by conducting a real epidemic situated training (REST) program.Methods: A situated cognition study was designed that included situational context design, legitimate peripheral participation, and the construction of a community of practice. The Task Cognitive Load Scale (NASA-TLX Scale) and self-developed questionnaires were adopted to conduct a questionnaire survey of resident doctors in a GP training program from West China Hospital of Sichuan University, and 183 questionnaires were collected. SPSS 23.0 statistical software was used for the statistical analysis of data.Results: The NASA scale showed that the intensity of field epidemic prevention and control (training) was tolerable. In particular, there was no statistical difference in the cognitive load intensity of training before and after the epidemic occurred at different time points (P<0.05). This shows that they were early trained and well prepared before sudden outbreak of the COVID-19.Before the outbreak of the epidemic, the public health knowledge and training received came from undergraduate education (83.16%), early residents program training (69.47%), online self-study (49.16%), and continuing education (20.53%). Conclusion:Former medical school education and training at the regulatory training stage have a good effect and enable residents to master the skills required for epidemic prevention and control and to physically and mentally prepare for the task. After this stage, epidemic prevention and control training in real situations will make important contributions to the self-assessment and performance improvement of public health training,and make participants more competent to face the epidemic task.


BMJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. n2454
Author(s):  
Khurram Hassan
Keyword(s):  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Knut Eirik Eliassen ◽  
Lukas Frans Ocias ◽  
Karen A. Krogfelt ◽  
Peter Wilhelmsson ◽  
Susanne Gjeruldsen Dudman ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Erythema migrans (EM) is the most common manifestation of Lyme borreliosis. Here, we examined EM patients in Norwegian general practice to find the proportion exposed to tick-transmitted microorganisms other than Borrelia, and the impact of co-infection on the clinical manifestations and disease duration. Methods Skin biopsies from 139/188 EM patients were analyzed using PCR for Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. Follow-up sera from 135/188 patients were analyzed for spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia, A. phagocytophilum and Babesia microti antibodies, and tested with PCR if positive. Day 0 sera from patients with fever (8/188) or EM duration of ≥ 21 days (69/188) were analyzed, using PCR, for A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. and N. mikurensis. Day 14 sera were tested for TBEV IgG. Results We detected no microorganisms in the skin biopsies nor in the sera of patients with fever or prolonged EM duration. Serological signs of exposure against SFG Rickettsia and A. phagocytophilum were detected in 11/135 and 8/135, respectively. Three patients exhibited both SFG Rickettsia and A. phagocytophilum antibodies, albeit negative PCR. No antibodies were detected against B. microti. 2/187 had TBEV antibodies without prior immunization. There was no significant increase in clinical symptoms or disease duration in patients with possible co-infection. Conclusions Co-infection with N. mikurensis, A. phagocytophilum, SFG Rickettsia, Babesia spp. and TBEV is uncommon in Norwegian EM patients. Despite detecting antibodies against SFG Rickettsia and A. phagocytophilum in some patients, no clinical implications could be demonstrated.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Barbara Stilwell ◽  
Richard Hobbs
Keyword(s):  

Author(s):  
Jen Murphy ◽  
Mark Elliot ◽  
William Whittaker ◽  
Rathi Ravindrarajah

IntroductionPoor access to general practice services has been attributed to increasing pressure on the health system more widely and low satisfaction among patients. Recent initiatives in England have sought to expand access by the provision of appointments in the evening and at weekends. Services are provided using a hub model. NHS national targets mandate extended opening hours as a mechanism for increasing access to primary care, based on the assumption that unmet need is caused by a lack of appointments at the right time. However, research has shown that other factors affect access to healthcare and it may not simply be appointment availability that limits an individual's ability to access general practice services. ObjectivesTo determine whether distance and deprivation impact on the uptake of extended hours GP services that use a hub practice model. MethodsWe linked a dataset (N = 25,408) concerning extended access appointments covering 158 general practice surgeries in four Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) to the General Practice Patient Survey (GPPS) survey, deprivation statistics and primary care registration data. We used negative binomial regression to estimate associations between distance and deprivation on the uptake of extended hours GP services in the Greater Manchester City Region. Distance was defined as a straight line between the extended hours provider location and the patient's home practice, the English Indices of Multiple Deprivation were used to determine area deprivation based upon the home practice, and familiarity was defined as whether the patient's home practice provided an extended hours service. ResultsThe number of uses of the extended hours service at a GP practice level was associated with distance. After allowing for distance, the number of uses of the service for hub practices was higher than for non-hub practices. Deprivation was not associated with rates of use. ConclusionThe results indicate geographic inequity in the extended hours service. There may be many patients with unmet need for whom the extension of hours via a hub and spoke model does not address barriers to access. Findings may help to inform the choice of hub practices when designing an extended access service. Providers should consider initiatives to improve access for those patients located in practices furthest away from hub practices. This is particularly of importance in the context of closing health inequality gaps.


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