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Author(s):  
Stephanie Christensen ◽  
Peter J. Tebben ◽  
David Sas ◽  
Ana L. Creo

Introduction: Hereditary Hypophosphatemic Rickets with Hypercalciuria (HHRH) is a rare condition of renal phosphate wasting due to SLC34A3 mutations [1]. Patients exhibit low serum phosphorus, high 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and inappropriately high urine phosphate and calcium. However, symptoms vary and little is known about specific phenotype-genotype correlations. Methods: We report three HHRH cases in unrelated 12-year-old, 9-year-old and 14-year-old patients and perform a systematic literature review. Results: All three patients exhibited labs typical of HHRH. Yet, their presentations differed and 2 novel SLC34A3 variants were identified. As found in the literature review, bone symptoms are most common (50%), followed by renal symptoms (17%), combined bone and renal symptoms (18%) and asymptomatic (9%). Conclusion: These three cases highlight the variability of presenting signs and symptoms among individuals with HHRH. An accurate diagnosis is critical, as treatment differs from other disorders of phosphate wasting, urinary stones, and mineralization defects.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Junxia Wang ◽  
Yunxing Xue ◽  
Xiyu Zhu ◽  
Hoshun Chong ◽  
Zhong Chen ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Acute type A aortic dissection (aTAAD) is a lethal disease and age is an important risk factor for outcomes. This retrospective study was to analyze the impact of age stratification in aTAAD, and to provide clues for surgeons when they make choices of therapy strategies. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2019, 1092 aTAAD patients from Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital received surgical therapy. Patients were divided into 7 groups according to every ten-year interval (20s-80s). The differences between the groups were analyzed in terms of the baseline preoperative conditions, surgical methods and postoperative outcomes of patients of different age groups. During a median follow-up term of 17 months, the survival rates were compared among 7 groups through Kaplan-Meier analysis.Results: The median age was 52.0 years old in whole cohort. The multiple comorbidities were more common in old age groups (60s, 70s, 80s), while the 20s group patients had the highest proportion of Marfan syndrome (28.1%). Preoperative hypotension was highest in 80s (16.7%, P=0.038). Young age groups (20s-60s) had a higher rate of root replacement and total arch replacement, which led to a longer duration of operation and hypothermic circulation arrest. The overall mortality was 14.1%, the tendency of mortality was increased with age except 20s group (33.3% in 80s, P=0.016). The postoperative morbidity of gastrointestinal bleeding and bowel ischemia were 16.7% and 11.1% in 80s group. Conclusions: Age is a major impact factor for aTAAD surgery. Old patients presented more comorbidities before surgery, the mortality and complications rate were significantly higher even with less invasive and conservative surgical therapy. But the favorable long term survival indicated that the simple or less extensive arch repair is the preferred surgery for patients over 70 years old.


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (20) ◽  
pp. 4658
Author(s):  
Hanan Nussinovitch ◽  
Erez Tsumi ◽  
Raimo Tuuminen ◽  
Boris Malyugin ◽  
Yotam Lior ◽  
...  

Advancements in surgical techniques and increased life expectancy have made cataract surgery more common among very old patients. However, surgical outcomes seem impaired in patients older than 90 years, especially with ocular comorbidities. A retrospective case-control study of 53 eyes of 53 very old patients (mean 92.6 ± 3.0) and 140 eyes of 140 matched patients (mean 75.2 ± 7.6) was undertaken. Groups were matched in terms of gender and systemic and ocular comorbidities. In very old patients, higher phacoemulsification energy (cumulative dissipated energy [CDE], 25.0 ± 22.4 vs. 16.1 ± 10.7, p = 0.01) and rate of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS, 9.4% vs. 1.4%, p = 0.02) were observed compared to controls. Uncorrected (UCVA) and best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA) gains were significantly poorer among the very old patients than among the control at postoperative day 30 (0.20 ± 0.70 vs. 0.56 ± 0.61 logMAR, p < 0.001 and 0.27 ± 0.64 vs. 0.55 ± 0.62 logMAR, p = 0.006, respectively). Even after including CDE and IFIS as covariates, age remained an independent factor for poor visual gain at 30 days (p < 0.001). Cataract surgery in very old patients may demand more experienced surgeons due to higher nuclear density and the rates of IFIS. Expectations in visual acuity gains should be aligned with the patient’s age.


Medicina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (10) ◽  
pp. 1079
Author(s):  
Alberto Caballero-García ◽  
Daniel Pérez-Valdecantos ◽  
Pablo Guallar ◽  
Aurora Caballero-Castillo ◽  
Enrique Roche ◽  
...  

Background and Objectives: Vitamin D, in addition to its effect on mineral homeostasis, plays a key role in muscle metabolism. Vitamin D supplementation is involved in muscle recovery after damage as a consequence of either pathology or after high-intensity exercise. In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the effect of vitamin D on muscle fitness in elderly patients in the recovery phase after SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection. Materials and Methods: This pilot study was conducted at the Soria Norte Health Center. The study consisted of a double-blind trial with two groups of men (placebo and vitamin D-supplemented) (n = 15/group). Treatment with vitamin D (cholecalciferol: 2000 IU/day) and placebo was carried out for 6 weeks. Circulating hematological and biochemical parameters (total protein, glucose, vitamin D, urea, uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase/glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, alanine aminotransferase/glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aldolase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and myoglobin) and the hormones cortisol and testosterone were determined. As for respiratory function tests, FEV1 and respiratory flow were also studied. For physical fitness tests, the “six-minute walk test” (6MWT) was used. Results: After vitamin D supplementation, we observed that serum creatine kinase levels returned to optimal values. This change suggests a protective role of vitamin D against muscle catabolism compared to placebo. In terms of physical test results, we observed only slight non-significant improvements, although patients reported feeling better. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation produces decreases in indicators of muscle damage, which may ultimately contribute to improving the health status and quality of life of patients who have suffered from COVID-19, during the recovery process.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258260
Author(s):  
Ezequiel Cordova ◽  
Analia Mykietiuk ◽  
Omar Sued ◽  
Lautaro De Vedia ◽  
Natalia Pacifico ◽  
...  

Background Clinical features and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infections diverge in different countries. The aim of this study was to describe clinical characteristics and outcomes in a cohort of patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 in Argentina. Methods Multicenter prospective cohort study of ≥18 years-old patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection consecutively admitted to 19 hospitals in Argentina. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify variables associated with 30-day mortality and admission to intensive care unit (ICU). Results A total of 809 patients were analyzed. Median age was 53 years, 56% were males and 71% had at least one comorbidity. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (32%), obesity (23%) and diabetes (17%). Disease severity at admission was classified as mild 25%, moderate 51%, severe 17%, and critical 7%. Almost half of patients (49%) required supplemental oxygen, 18% ICU, and 12% invasive ventilation. Overall, 30-day mortality was 11%. Factors independently associated with ICU admission were male gender (OR 1.81; 95%CI 1.16–2.81), hypertension (OR 3.21; 95%CI 2.08–4.95), obesity (OR 2.38; 95%CI 1.51–3.7), oxygen saturation ≤93% (OR 6.45; 95%CI 4.20–9.92) and lymphopenia (OR 3.21; 95%CI 2.08–4.95). Factors independently associated with 30-day mortality included age ≥60 years-old (OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.63–4.43), oxygen saturation ≤93% (OR 3.19; 95%CI 1.97–5.16) and lymphopenia (OR 2.65; 95%CI 1.64–4.27). Conclusions This cohort validates crucial clinical data on patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 in Argentina.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ryan B. Thomas ◽  
Vittorio Maio ◽  
Anna Chen ◽  
Seojin Park ◽  
Dexter Waters ◽  
...  

PURPOSE: To explore mean difference between Oncology Care Model (OCM) total costs and target price among breast cancer episodes by stage under the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services OCM payment methodology. METHODS: Breast cancer episodes from OCM performance period 1-4 reconciliation reports (July 1, 2016-July 1, 2018) were linked with health record data from a large, academic medical center. Demographics, total cost of care (TCOC), and target price were measured by stage. Adjusted differences between TCOC and target price were compared across cancer stage using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 539 episodes were evaluated from 252 unique patients with breast cancer, of which 235 (44%) were stage I, 124 (23%) stage II, 33 (6%) stage III, and 147 (27%) stage IV. About 37% of episodes exceeded target price. Mean differences from target price were –$1,782, $2,246, –$6,032, and $11,379 all in US dollars (USD) for stages I through IV, respectively. Stage IV episodes had highest mean TCOC ($44,210 USD) and mean target price ($32,831 USD) but also had higher rates of chemotherapy, inpatient admission, and novel therapy use. After adjusting for covariates, stage IV and ≥ 65-year-old patients had the highest mean difference from target price ($17,175 USD; 95% CI, $12,452 to $21,898 USD). CONCLUSION: Breast cancer episodes in older women with distant metastases most frequently exceeded target price, suggesting that target price did not adequately account for complexity of metastatic cancers. A metastatic adjustment introduced in PP7 represents a promising advancement in the target price methodology and an impact evaluation will be needed.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
João P.P. Bonifacio ◽  
Nathalia Williams ◽  
Laure Garnier ◽  
Stephanie Hugues ◽  
Mirco Schmolke ◽  
...  

AbstractThe live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is approved for intranasal spray application in 2-49 year-old patients with safety concerns limiting its use in younger children and immunocompromised patients, mainly from the higher incidence of adverse events and the possibility of uncontrolled replication and reversion to a pathogenic strain, respectively. Further attenuation of the LAIV could generally improve its safety profile, which might come at the cost of reduced immunogenicity. To solve this dilemma, we took advantage of a recently defined mechanism of ER stress induction by modifying IAV non-structural protein 1 (NS1). The modified LAIV (AAmut/PR8) showed stronger ER stress activation in vitro and replicated to lower titers in vivo compared to its parental strain, without affecting protection against homo-subtypic or hetero-subtypic IAV strains. AAmut/PR8 could pose as a suitable strategy to attend the gap to the current LAIV recommendation guidelines in susceptible target populations.


Author(s):  
Mireia Puig-Campmany ◽  
Marta Blázquez-Andión ◽  
Josep Ris-Romeu
Keyword(s):  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Feiping Xia ◽  
Jing Zhang ◽  
Shanshan Meng ◽  
Haibo Qiu ◽  
Fengmei Guo

Background: The associations of frailty with the risk of mortality and resource utilization in the elderly patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) remain unclear. To address these issues, we performed a meta-analysis to determine whether frailty is associated with adverse outcomes and increased resource utilization in elderly patients admitted to the ICU.Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through August 2021 to identify the relevant studies that investigated frailty in elderly (≥ 65 years old) patients admitted to an ICU and compared outcomes and resource utilization between frail and non-frail patients. The primary outcome was mortality. We also investigated the prevalence of frailty and the impact of frailty on the health resource utilization, such as hospital length of stay (LOS) and resource utilization of ICU.Results: A total of 13 observational studies enrolling 64,279 participants (28,951 frail and 35,328 non-frail) were finally included. Frailty was associated with an increased risk of short-term mortality (10 studies, relative risk [RR]: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.45–1.98), in-hospital mortality (five studies, RR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.55–1.93), and long-term mortality (six studies, RR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.44–2.42). Subgroup analysis showed that retrospective studies identified a stronger correlation between frailty and hospital LOS (three studies, MD 1.14 d; 95% CI: 0.92–1.36).Conclusions: Frailty is common in the elderly patients admitted to ICU, and is associated with increased mortality and prolonged hospital LOS.Trial registration: This study was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42020207242).


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 179-194
Author(s):  
Martin V. Bavngaard ◽  
Anette Grønning

In Denmark, e-mail consultations (e-cons) are now supplementing conventional consultations with doctors and raising questions related to self-governing technology from the patient perspective. Interestingly, old patients are the most frequent users of this kind of consultation. This article examines how e-cons affect old people’s relationships with and perceptions of their general practitioners (GPs) regarding trust, self-governance and indirect/direct power. This qualitative study is based on interviews with twenty patients between 66 and 83 years old. Applying a thematic analysis in which four salient themes were identified, the study demonstrates that the patients perceive the GP as powerful, knowledgeable and busy; this corresponds with the power relationship between disciplinary institutions and individuals. At the same time, many patients use e-cons as a technology of self-governance, thereby taking responsibility for their own health while still being able to contact the clinic. In this way, patients achieve the potential for self-management, while clinics maintain their institutional power.


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