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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
R. Yasmeen ◽  
B. Zahid ◽  
S. Alyas ◽  
R. Akhtar ◽  
N. Zahra ◽  

Abstract Lactobacilli are probiotics with Aflatoxin (AF) detoxification ability, found in fermented products, GIT of animals and environment. Purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of broiler isolates of Lactobacillus against Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). For this purpose, 5 isolates of Lactobacillus from broiler gut were incubated with 100 ppb AFB1 in aqueous environment and effect of different parameters (cell fractions, time, temperature, pH) on detoxification was determined by HPLC. The ameliorative effect of Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) against AFB1 was studied in broiler. The results revealed that LS (CR. 4) showed the best results (in vitro) as compared to other isolates (L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR, 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) and L. crispatus (CE. 28). Cell debris of CR. 4 showed significantly higher detoxification (P<0.05). Maximum amount of AFB1 was detoxified at 30°C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) and 6 h (99.97%). In vivo study showed that AFB1 decreased weight gain (1,269 ± 0.04 gm/ bird), feed consumed (2,161 ± 0.08 gm/ bird), serum total protein (2.42 ± 0.34 gm/ dl), serum albumin (0.5 ± 0.2 2 gm/dl) and antibody titer (4.2 ± 0.83). Liver function enzymes were found (alanine transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U/L) and aspartate transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U/L) elevated in AFB1 fed broilers. Treatment with 1% LS not only decreased the toxic effects of AFB1 (group D) but also improved the overall health of broilers due to its probiotic effects (p<0.05) as compared to control negative (group A). The detoxification ability of LS was better than commercial binder (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). It was concluded that detoxification of AFB1 by Lactobacillus was strain, temperature, pH and time dependent. LS has detoxification ability against AFB1 in vivo.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 528
Amal Adnan Ashour ◽  
Sakeenabi Basha ◽  
Nayef H. Felemban ◽  
Enas T. Enan ◽  
Amal Ahmed Alyamani ◽  

In the present study, Zingiber officinale is used for the synthesis of Zingiber officinale capped silver nanoparticles (ZOE-AgNPs) and compares the antimicrobial efficacy and compressive strength of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) combined with ZOE-AgNPs, lyophilized miswak, and chlorhexidine diacetate (CHX) against oral microbes. Five groups of the disc-shaped GIC specimens were prepared. Group A: lyophilized miswak and GIC combination, Group B: ZOE-AgNPs and GIC combinations, Group C: CHX and GIC combination, Group D: ZOE-AgNPs + CHX + GIC; Group E: Conventional GIC. Results confirmed the successful formation of ZOE-AgNPs that was monitored by UV-Vis sharp absorption spectra at 415 nm. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) results revealed the formation of ZOE-AgNPs with a mean size 10.5–14.12 nm. The peaks of the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were appearing the involvement of ZOE components onto the surface of ZOE-AgNPs which played as bioreducing, and stabilizing agents. At a 24-h, one-week and three-week intervals, Group D showed the significantly highest mean inhibitory zones compared to Group A, Group B, and Group C. At microbe-level comparison, Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus were inhibited significantly by all the specimens tested except group E when compared to Candida albicans. Group D specimens showed slightly higher (45.8 ± 5.4) mean compressive strength in comparison with other groups. The combination of GIC with ZOE-AgNPs and chlorhexidine together enhanced its antimicrobial efficacy and compressive strength compared to GIC with ZOE-AgNPs or lyophilized miswak or chlorhexidine combination alone. The present study revealed that The combination of GIC with active components of ZOE-AgNPs and chlorhexidine paves the way to lead its effective nano-dental materials applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Zhixin Lv ◽  
Limuge Che ◽  
Yiri Du ◽  
Jianshe Yu ◽  
Enboer Su ◽  

ObjectiveTo study the effect of Eerdun Wurile (EW), a traditional Mongolian medicine, on the cognitive function of rats by activating the IRS-PI3K-AKT-GLUT4 pathway in an animal model of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD).MethodsFifty clean-grade adults Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats were assigned to one of five groups: (1) a control group with no anesthesia (Group C), (2) a POCD model group with anesthesia only (Group P), (3) POCD group with low-dose EW treated (Group L), (4) a POCD group with high-dose EW treated (Group H), and (5) a POCD model group with dexmedetomidine treated (Group D) for positive control. The study started 7 days after all rats had acclimated to housing. Rats were trained in the Morris Water Maze navigation 5 days before surgery. All rats underwent the same maze for navigation and spatial exploration experiments on the preoperative day 1 and postoperative days 1, 3, 5, and their learning and memory abilities were assessed. At the end of the water maze experiment, rats were sacrificed to obtain hippocampal tissue. The mRNA levels of IRS-2, PI3K, AKT, and GLUT4 were measured in the hippocampus by real-time PCR, and the expression of IRS-2, PI3K, AKT, and GLUT4 protein in the hippocampus was determined by Western blotting to investigate the potential mechanisms at the molecular level.ResultsCompared to control Group C, Group P, L, H, and D showed prolonged escape latency (P &lt; 0.05) and decreased number of times to cross the platform (P &lt; 0.05) at 1, 3 and 5 days after surgery. Compared to Group P, Group L, H, and D showed a decrease in escape latency with an increased number of crossing the platform at all-time points after surgery (P &lt; 0.05). Within individual P, L, H, and D groups, escape latencies decreased (P &lt; 0.05) and the number of times that the platform was crossed increased (P &lt; 0.05) between postoperative days 3 and 5 compared to postoperative 1 day. Compared to Group C, the mRNA expression of IRS-2, PI3K, AKT and GLUT4 in the hippocampus of P, L, H, and D groups were decreased (P &lt; 0.05). Compared to Group P, IRS-2, PI3K, AKT, and GLUT4 in the hippocampus of L, H, and D groups were increased (P &lt; 0.05). Compared with Group D, the expression levels of IRS-2 and AKT in both L and H groups were higher. The expression level of PI3K in Group L was also higher (P &lt; 0.05) vs Group D. The expression of AKT mRNA in Group H was higher than in Group L (P &lt; 0.05). Compared to Group C, the p-IRS-2/IRS-2 ratio in the hippocampus of Group P was higher than that of Group C (P &lt; 0.05). Compared to Group P, the ratios of p-IRS-2/IRS-2 in Group L, Group H, and Group D were lower, and the ratios of the p-PI3K/PI3K, p-AKT/AKT, and p-GLUT4/GLUT4 were higher (P &lt; 0.05).ConclusionAdministration of EW showed the effect on the signaling pathway in rats with POCD. The therapeutic effect was better in the low-dose group. This could be related to the insulin downstream signal molecule PI3K and the IRS-PI3K-AKT-GLUT4 signaling pathway.

2022 ◽  
Sarwat Ishaq ◽  
Ghazala Jabeen ◽  
Farkhanda Manzoor

On a daily basis, our environment is exposed to tons of a composite of industrial effluents, which has a negative impact on commercial fish production and, as a result, on humans. Present study was designed to evaluate the acute, sub-chronic, and chronic toxicity of a composite of raw industrial effluent from Sunder Industrial Estate in the freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus biosystem by investigating at the histopathological changes in different organs such as heart, kidney, and muscle after exposure. Fish was exposed to 1/3 rd , 1/5 th and 1/10 th of predetermined LC 50 . Significant histopathological alterations in heart (myocarditis, pericardium bending and lifting) kidney (renal tube degeneration, glomerulus structural alteration and necrotic proximal tubule) and muscle (inflammation, atrophy and tumor) were observed in treated groups. After the sub-lethal exposure histological alteration index (HAI) was highest in chronic group as compared to the acute and sub-chronic group as HAI group D ? HAI group C ? HAI group B. Moreover physic-chemical parameters of water were found to be out of the range of the APHA standard approach.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 309-314
Edmund Chidiebere Mbegbu ◽  
Rita Ifeoma Odo ◽  
Paul Tobechukwu Ozioko ◽  
Mark Ebubechukwu Awachie ◽  
Lotanna Gilbert Nwobi ◽  

Purpose: To investigate the ameliorative effect of aqueous garlic extract (AGEx) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2-induced) alterations in the blood and testicles of rats. Methods: A total of 24 male rats (160 - 200 g), randomly assigned into 4 groups (A - D; n = 6), were used to investigate the claimed protective effect of AGEx on blood and spermatogenic tissues following CdCl2-intoxication in albino rats. The rats in Group A served as controls and were given 5 mg/mL of deionized water. Group B rats were given 300 mg/kg of AGEx. Group C rats were given 2 mg/kg of CdCl2. Rats in Group D first received 2 mg/kg of CdCl2, and 300 mg/kg of AGEx 2 h later. All treatments were done every 48 h for a period of six weeks. Results: CdCl2 administration to group C rats reduced (p < 0.05) haematocrit value (PCV), concentration of haemoglobin (Hb), red cells count (RBC), total leucocytes count (tWBC), eosinophil, neutrophil, testicular weights and sperm reserves; but elevated (p < 0.05) lymphocytes count compared with the controls. AGEx 300 mg/kg in group D rats significantly reversed (p < 0.05) the altered parameters compared with the controls. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that administration of aqueous Allium sativum (garlic) extract to male rats enhances spermatogenesis, and ameliorates testicular and haematological alterations induced by cadmium poisoning. Therefore, the spermatogenic principle in AGEx is a potential candidate for the clinical management of male infertility.

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Nuray Özkahraman ◽  
Nilüfer Bölükbaşı Balcıoğlu ◽  
Merva Soluk Tekkesin ◽  
Yusuf Altundağ ◽  
Serdar Yalçın

Background and Objectives: Dentin grafts have osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties and are considered as an alternative to autogenous graft. This study evaluates the efficacy of autogenous mineralized dentin graft (AMDG) alone or with xenograft and compares it with those of various graft materials used in the treatment of intraosseous bone defects. Materials and Methods: The third incisor teeth of six sheep (2–3 years old) were extracted and AMDG was obtained. Six defects were prepared on each tibia of these six sheep: empty defect (group E); autogenous graft (group A), dentin graft (group D), xenograft (group X), autogenous + xenograft (group A + X) and dentin + xenograft (group D + X). Three sheep in each group were sacrificed in the post-operative 3rd and 6th week and the histologic analyses were performed. Results: The D and D + X groups showed histological features similar to the other groups in the 3rd and 6th weeks. No statistically significant difference was found regarding the rates of new bone formation between the D and D + X groups (p = 1.0) and the other groups at both time intervals (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Similar results observed in this study between groups A, D, X, A + X and D + X demonstrate that AMDG can be successfully used in the treatment of intraosseous bone defects. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to be able to evaluate the effectiveness of dentin grafts in different types of indications.

Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 50
María Martínez-Olcina ◽  
Laura Miralles-Amorós ◽  
Nuria Asencio-Mas ◽  
Manuel Vicente-Martínez ◽  
Rodrigo Yáñez-Sepúlveda ◽  

Triathlons are endurance events that include swimming, running, and cycling. Triathletes need to eat optimally during training and competitions to maximize their potential for success. The presence of carbohydrates in the mouth could activate regions in the brain to enhance athletic performance in exercise. Methods: This study examined the effects of glucose and mouthwash in ten male triathletes (age: 26.0 ± 8.7 years, height: 173.6 ± 10.4 cm, BMI 22.0 ± 1.7 kg/m2). The four oral test solutions included (A) Rinse with placebo, (B) Water + gel with placebo, (C) Rinse with 15% CH concentration, and (D) Water + gel with 15% CH concentration (25 g gel in 165 mL water). The Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE), Sensation Scale (FS), Felt Arousal Scale (FAS), Profile of Mood States (POMS), blood glucose, sprints, and dietary habits were assessed in each subject. All preceded ingestion of the oral-based test solution during workouts. Results: RPE showed no significant differences for subjective perceptions. The same was observed for FS and sprints. FAS scores increased over time (p = 0.039) in all groups. POMS score increased significantly in group D (p = 0.041). There was no effect of time on plasma glucose levels (p = 0.737). As for correlations, positive correlations were observed between sprint and FAS variables (p = 0.011). Conclusions: It appears that CH intake correlates positively with mood, but in all other variables, there are no differences depending on the product.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Josef Stolberg-Stolberg ◽  
Thomas Fuchs ◽  
Moritz F. Lodde ◽  
Steffen Roßlenbroich ◽  
Patric Garcia ◽  

Abstract Background Long-bone non-unions after intramedullary nailing can be treated by nail dynamization or focused high-energy extracorporal shock wave therapy (fESWT). The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the combination therapy of nail dynamization and fESWT on long-bone non-unions. Materials and methods 49 patients with long-bone non-unions (femur and tibia) after nailing were treated with nail dynamization (group D, n = 15), fESWT (group S, n = 17) or nail dynamization in addition to fESWT (group DS, n = 17). Patients were followed up for 6 months retrospectively. Furthermore, age, sex, Non-Union Scoring System (NUSS) score, time intervals from primary and last surgery until intervention and smoking status were analysed for their correlations to bone union. Results Union rates were 60% for group D, 64.7% for group S and 88.2% for group DS, with a significant difference between group D and DS (p = 0.024). Successful treatment was correlated with high age (OR 1.131; 95% CI 1.009–1.268; p = 0.034), female gender (OR 0.009; 95% CI 0.000–0.89; p = 0.039), low NUSS score (OR 0.839; 95% CI 0.717–0.081; p = 0.028) and negative smoking status (OR 86.018; 95% CI 3.051–2425.038; p = 0.009). Conclusions Data from the present study indicate that the combination therapy of nail dynamization and fESWT leads to a higher union rate than dynamization or fESWT alone. Level of evidence Level 3.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 436
Lucía Barallat ◽  
María Arregui ◽  
Sandra Fernandez-Villar ◽  
Blanca Paniagua ◽  
Andrés Pascual-La Rocca

There is ample evidence to support the use of endocrowns to restore endodontic teeth. However, the influence of the position of the interproximal margins on fracture strength has not yet been studied. The aim was to determine the relationship between the apicocoronal position of the interproximal restorative margins and fracture resistance in nonvital teeth restored with CAD/CAM endocrown overlays. Forty extracted human maxillary premolars were prepared for endocrown overlay restorations without ferrule on the interproximal aspects and classified according to the position of the interproximal restoration margins in relation to the alveolar crest: 2 mm (group A), 1 mm (group B), 0.5 mm (group C), and 0 mm (group D). Fracture strength was measured using a universal testing machine applying a compressive force to the longitudinal tooth axis. Group A had a mean fracture resistance of 859.61 (±267.951) N, group B 1053.9 (±333.985) N, group C 1124.6 (±291.172) N, and group D 780.67 (±183.269) N, with statistical differences between groups. Group C had the highest values for fracture strength compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). The location of the interproximal margins appears to influence the fracture resistance of CAD/CAM endocrown overlays. A distance of 0.5 mm between the interproximal margin and the alveolar crest was associated with increased fracture resistance.

Mijung Yun ◽  
Gunn Hee Kim ◽  
Sung-chul Ko ◽  
Yun Jae Han ◽  
Wooshik Kim

Background: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease, and early thymectomy is recommended. Since the introduction of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, the safety and effectiveness of carbon dioxide insufflation in the thoracic cavity (capnothorax) has been controversial. This study aimed to compare the safety and effectiveness of ventilation methods in bilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic extended thymectomy (BVET) with capnothorax.Methods: We retrospectively investigated the medical records of patients with MG who underwent BVET between August 2016 and January 2018. Patients were divided into two groups: group D (n = 26) for one-lung ventilation and group S (n = 28) for two-lung ventilation. We set nine anesthesia time points (T0–T8) and collected respiratory and hemodynamic variables, including arterial O2 index (PaO2/FiO2).Results: SpO2 at T1–T3 and T8 was significantly lower in group D than in group S. The FiO2 in group S was lower than that in group D at all time points. The number of PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 and PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 200 events was significantly higher in group D than in group S. Hemodynamic variables were not significantly different between the two groups at any time point. The duration of surgery and anesthesia was shorter in group S than in group D. Conclusions: This retrospective study suggests that anesthesia using two-lung ventilation during BVET with capnothorax is a safe and effective method to improve lung oxygenation and reduce anesthesia time.

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