early pregnancy
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Yingxuan Zhang ◽  
Si Chen ◽  
Xiaofeng Chen ◽  
Huimin Zhang ◽  
Xuge Huang ◽  

The early diagnosis and treatment of ectopic pregnancy (EP) remains a major challenge. Despite a known link between vaginal microbiota and female reproductive health, few studies have focused on the association between vaginal microbiota and pregnancy location. This nested case-control study aimed to characterize the vaginal microbiota in tubal pregnancy (TP) among symptomatic women in early pregnancy. Women with symptomatic early pregnancy of unknown location (PUL) were included in this study. 16S rDNA gene sequencing was performed to assess vaginal microbial diversity and relative abundance. Machine learning and multivariate logistic regression were also used to evaluate the association between Gardnerella and TP. The results indicate that the vaginal microbiome in TP was more diverse (Shannon, p < 0.05) and was different in composition to that of women with intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) (weighted Unifrac, R = 0.08, p = 0.01). The genus Gardnerella was significantly enriched in TP. The XGBoost analysis was able to classify Gardnerella-induced TP more reliably (AUC = 0.621). Moreover, after adjusting potential confounders, our results indicate a robust association between Gardnerella and TP (as a continuous variable, adjusted OR: 12.0, 95% CI: 2.1–67.4, p < 0.01; as a categorical variable (≥0.85%), and adjusted OR: 4.2, 95% CI: 2.0–8.8, p < 0.01). In conclusion, we found that higher virginal Gardnerella levels were associated with TP in women with symptomatic early pregnancy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 945
Marlena Gudelska ◽  
Kamil Dobrzyn ◽  
Marta Kiezun ◽  
Katarzyna Kisielewska ◽  
Edyta Rytelewska ◽  

Chemerin, belonging to the adipokine family, exhibits pleiotropic activity. We hypothesised that the adipokine could be involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis in the porcine endometrium. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of chemerin on the key steroidogenic enzyme proteins’ abundance (Western blot), as well as on P4 and E2 secretion (radioimmunoassay) by the porcine endometrium during early pregnancy and the mid-luteal phase of the oestrous cycle. Moreover, we investigated the hormone impact on Erk and Akt signalling pathway activation (Western blot). Chemerin stimulated E2 production on days 10 to 11 of pregnancy. On days 10 to 11 and 15 to 16 of gestation, and on days 10 to 11 of the cycle, chemerin enhanced the expression of StAR and all steroidogenic enzyme proteins. On days 12 to 13 of pregnancy, chemerin decreased StAR and most of the steroidogenic enzyme proteins’ abundance, whereas the P450C17 abundance was increased. On days 27 to 28 of pregnancy, chemerin increased StAR and P450C17 protein contents and decreased 3βHSD protein amounts. It was noted that the adipokine inhibited Erk1/2 and stimulated Akt phosphorylation. The obtained results indicate that chemerin affected P4 and E2 synthesis through the Erk1/2 and Akt signalling pathways.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 359
Mingxuan Cui ◽  
Xuening Li ◽  
Chen Yang ◽  
Linlin Wang ◽  
Lulu Lu ◽  

Carbohydrates play an important role in blood glucose control in pregnant women with GDM. Carbohydrate-restricted dietary (CRD) pattern for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been widely used in clinics, but the change in insulin utilization rate beyond CRD intervention in GDM remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore the application of insulin in pregnancy with GDM, as well as the influence of CRD pattern on lipid metabolism and nutritional state. A retrospective study of 265 women with GDM who delivered in Peking University People’s Hospital from July 2018 to January 2020 was conducted using a questionnaire survey. Women were divided into a CRD group or a control group according to whether they had received CRD intervention during pregnancy. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of insulin therapy between the two groups (p > 0.05), the initial gestational week of the CRD group combined with insulin treatment was significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05), and the risk of insulin therapy was positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in early pregnancy (p < 0.05). The incidence of abnormal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the CRD group was significantly lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in nutritional indexes between the two groups. The results indicate that CRD intervention may be effective in delaying the use of insulin and improving the blood lipids metabolism during GDM pregnancy, while nutritional status may not be significantly affected under CRD intervention, and a high FPG in early pregnancy with GDM may be a risk factor for combined insulin therapy with CRD intervention.

Robina Mirza ◽  
Ankita Sharma ◽  
Pooja Sharma

Background: Early pregnancy failure (EPF) is a common experience for women. Medical management allows for expulsion of the nonviable pregnancy in a controlled manner without any surgical risk. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy and safety of mifepristone followed by misoprostol with misoprostol alone in management of EPF.Methods: This was a prospective comparative interventional randomised clinical study conducted at Shri Maharaja Gulab Singh hospital, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir India from November 2019 to October 2020. A total of 200 patients with gestational age less than 13 weeks and ultrasound diagnosis of EPF were included in the study and randomly divided into two groups, group A (100 patients) received tab. mifepristone 200 mg orally 24 hrs before the use of Tab misoprostol 800 ug per vaginally. If no expulsion occurs within 4 hours, repeat doses of 400 ug misoprostol were given per vaginally at 4-hourly interval to a maximum of 2 doses in women less than or equal to 9 weeks by ultrasound and 4 doses in women more than 9 weeks by ultrasound. Group B (100 patients) received only Tab misoprostol in similar doses without prior mifepristone. The study was performed after approval from the institutional ethical committee. The data was analysed using computer software Microsoft Excel, Statistical and IBM SPSS version 21.0. The statistical difference in mean value between two groups was tested using unpaired ‘t’ test. The qualitative data was compared using Fischer’s exact test.Results: The success rate was higher in group A 92% than group B where it was 76%. The mean induction-abortion interval and dose of misoprostol required for expulsion were 6.56±.66 hrs in group A and 10.40±4.33 hrs in group B and 1126.88±536.06 ug in group A and 1583.33±364.58 ug in group B. The patients in group A experienced significantly less side effects than those in group B, 19% versus 32% and also required fewer blood transfusions than group B, 2% versus 5%.Conclusions: In the present study we came to the conclusion that mifepristone followed by misoprostol is more effective, safe and acceptable than misoprostol alone.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Swaathi Kiritharan ◽  
Mille Vang Johanson ◽  
Martin Bach Jensen ◽  
Janus Nikolaj Laust Thomsen ◽  
Camilla Aakjær Andersen ◽  

Abstract Background Spotting and light vaginal bleeding are common and usually harmless symptoms in early pregnancy. Still, vaginal bleeding may be the first sign of an abortion and often causes distress to pregnant women and leads to an expectation of an ultrasonography examination of the uterus. As point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) is increasingly being integrated into general practice, these patients may be clinically evaluated and managed by general practitioners (GPs). This can potentially reduce referrals of patients from the primary to the secondary healthcare sector resulting in societal cost-savings. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether the accessibility of POCUS in general practice for patients with vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy is cost-saving compared to usual practice where GPs do not have access to POCUS. A secondary purpose of this study was to estimate a remuneration for GPs performing POCUS on these patients in general practice. Methods A cost-minimisation analysis was based on a decision tree model reflecting the two alternatives: general practice with and without GPs having access to POCUS. The robustness of the model results was investigated using probabilistic sensitivity analysis and the following deterministic sensitivity analyses: one-way analyses for the model input parameters and a scenario analysis with a change from a societal to a healthcare sector perspective. An expected remuneration reflecting the add-on cost of Danish GPs performing POCUS was estimated based on the related costs: cost of an ultrasonography scanner, GP’s time consumption, ultrasonography training, and utensils per scanning. Results The difference in average cost between the two alternatives from a societal perspective was estimated to be €110, in favour of general practice with GPs using POCUS. The deterministic sensitivity analyses demonstrated robustness of the results to plausible changes in the input parameters. The expected remuneration for performing POCUS in this specific setting was estimated to be €32 per examination. Conclusion Having GPs perform POCUS on patients with vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy is cost-saving compared to usual practice. The results should be taken with caution as this study was based on early modelling with uncertainties associated with the input parameters in the model.

Inger W. Johnsson ◽  
Emelie Lindberger ◽  
Fredrik Ahlsson ◽  
Jan Gustafsson ◽  
Maria E. Lundgren

Abstract This study aimed to investigate how maternal birthweight is related to early pregnancy obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and offspring birthweight. Females born term and singleton in Sweden between 1973 and 1995 (N = 305,893) were studied at their first pregnancy. Information regarding their birthweight, early pregnancy body mass index, and pregnancy complications was retrieved from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, as were data on their mothers and offspring. High maternal birthweights (2–3 standard deviation scores (SDS) and >3 SDS) were associated with greater odds of early pregnancy obesity, odds ratio (OR) 1.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42–1.63) and OR 2.06 (CI 1.71–2.49), respectively. A low maternal birthweight (<2 SDS) was associated with greater odds of GDM (OR 2.49, CI 2.00–3.12). No association was found between high maternal birthweight and GDM. A maternal birthweight 2–3 SDS was associated with offspring birthweight 2–3 SDS (OR 3.83, CI 3.44–4.26), and >3 SDS (OR 3.55, CI 2.54–4.97). Corresponding ORs for a maternal birthweight >3 SDS were 5.38 (CI 4.12–7.01) and 6.98 (CI 3.57–13.65), respectively. In conclusion, a high maternal birthweight was positively associated with early pregnancy obesity and offspring macrosomia. A low, but not a high maternal birthweight, was associated with GDM.

Reema Khajuria ◽  
Arushi Suri ◽  
Rohini Jaggi

Background: Misoprostol use in early pregnancy failure is varied and dose is not well established. Aim of this study was to compare efficacy and side effects of 600 versus 800 micrograms vaginal misoprostol in early pregnancy failure.Methods: A randomized prospective observational study was conducted in the postgraduate department of obstetrics and gynaecology, SMGS hospital Jammu from November 2018 to October 2019 after getting approval from the ethical committee. Hundred patients (50 in group A and 50 in group B) admitted in labour room before 12 weeks of gestation with an ultrasound diagnosis of early fetal demise (missed abortion or brightened ovum) were treated medically with different doses of vaginal misoprostol.Results: The success rate in patients in group A is 72% and group B is 88%, p=0.045 (difference is statistically significant). Patients who required suction and evacuation were 28% in group A and 12% in group B.Conclusions: Use of misoprostol for medical management of 1st trimester missed/anembryonic is an effective, cheap, safe and convenient alternative to surgical evacuation. It was concluded that 800 micrograms vaginal misoprostol is more effective than 600 micrograms vaginal misoprostol. But 800 micrograms misoprostol has more side effects than 600 micrograms vaginal misoprostol.

2022 ◽  
Laura Sanapo ◽  
Margaret H Bublitz ◽  
Alice Bai ◽  
Niharika Mehta ◽  
Geralyn M Messerlian ◽  

Abstract Study Objectives To examine the association between maternal sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and glucose metabolism in early gestation. Methods Women with body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2 and singleton pregnancies underwent in-home sleep study (HSAT) and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) in early pregnancy. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA %B) were derived. Exclusion criteria included pregestational diabetes, use of continuous positive airway pressure and chronic steroid therapy. We performed linear regression analyses to evaluate the association between continuous measures of SDB (respiratory event index (REI), and oxygen desaturation index (ODI)) and glucose metabolism parameters (HOMA-IR and HOMA %B). Analyses were adjusted for a set of a priori selected variables which included gestational age, maternal age, BMI, ethnicity, race, and parity. Results One hundred and ninety-two pregnant women with median (interquartile range) BMI of 35.14 (8.30) kg/m2 underwent HSAT and HOMA assessment at 11.14 (3) and 15.35 (4.14) gestational weeks, respectively. REI and ODI, as continuous values, were associated with HOMA-IR after adjusting for covariates. OSA (obstructive sleep apnea) diagnosis (REI &gt; 5 events per hour) was not associated with HOMA-IR after adjusting for BMI (p ≥ 0.05). None of the parameters were associated with HOMA %B (p &gt; 0.07). Conclusions SDB and insulin resistance are associated in early pregnancy, with a dose response association between respiratory event index severity and insulin resistance. Further studies are needed to establish if pregnant women with overweight and obesity may benefit from early SDB screening to improve glucose metabolic outcome. Clinical trials: NCT02412696, Positive Airway Pressure, Sleep Apnea, and the Placenta (PAP-SAP) https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02412696?term=Bourjeily&draw=2&rank=2 and NCT02917876, Predictors of De-novo Development of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Pregnancy (Predictors) https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02917876?term=Bourjeily&draw=2&rank=1

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 127
Lorenzo G. T. M. Segabinazzi ◽  
Brandy N. Roberts ◽  
Erik W. Peterson ◽  
Rachael Ambrosia ◽  
Don Bergfelt ◽  

We aimed to characterize early embryo development and changes in corpus luteum (CL) development and progesterone profile in pregnant vs. non-pregnant jennies. Eight jennies were enrolled in the study. In the first two cycles, the jennies were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography and had blood harvested for hormone profile assay. In the third cycle, jennies were bred by a jack of proven fertility. Jennies were then monitored and sampled for up to 30 days of pregnancy. Data were evaluated by random-effects multiple linear regression, and correlations were expressed as Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Progesterone concentration rose rapidly from ovulation (D0) until D7, plateaued until D12–14, then precipitously declined between D14 and 15, remaining low until the next ovulation in non-pregnant cycles. In the pregnant jennies, the progesterone concentration rose to maximal concentrations on D7–11, being higher at this stage than in non-pregnant cycles, then declined gradually up to D30. In all cycles, the volume of the CL increased steadily until D6, when it plateaued in pregnant jennies. For non-pregnant jennies, CL volume decreased slowly from D6 to D11 and then had a faster drop. Uterine tone increased following ovulation, becoming turgid around the day of embryo fixation (D15.0 ± 0.9). An embryonic vesicle (EV) was first detected on D9.3 ± 0.5 (2.4 ± 0.5 mm). The EV remained spherical until D18.6 ± 1.4. The embryo proper was first detected ventrally in the vesicle on D20.8 ± 1.1 and the embryonic heartbeat by D22.0 ± 0.9. The allantoic sac was identified at D24.0 ± 0.9, and at D30, the allantoic sac filled the ventral half of the EV. This study provides evidence that higher cumulative concentrations of progesterone are correlated to size of the EV, and there were changes in the luteal dynamics and progesterone profiles in pregnant vs. non-pregnant jennies.

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