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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ratul Das ◽  
Hanh-Phuc Le

<p>Improving power delivery and management plays a key role in minimizing the cost of building and operating future green data centers to meet the fast growth of high-performance computing. Toward this important goal, this paper presents a new complete power delivery architecture to bridge AC grid voltages to core levels for computing loads using only 2 conversion stages with new converter topologies. The first stage converts a commercial AC line voltage of 90V-110V to a 48-60V intermediate bus with power factor correction (PFC). The second stage converts the bus voltage to core voltages of ~1 V with high current density and simple duty cycle control. Individually, the first stage was measured at 96.1% peak efficiency for output currents ranging in 0-4.5 A, while the second stage achieved 90.7% peak efficiency with a load range of 0-220 A at 1 V. Measured peak power densities are 73 W/in3 for the first stage and 2020 W/in3 for the second stage. In combination, the direct conversion from a line AC voltage of ~110 VAC to 1 VDC achieves a peak efficiency of 84.1% while providing output currents up to 160A.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ratul Das ◽  
Hanh-Phuc Le

<p>Improving power delivery and management plays a key role in minimizing the cost of building and operating future green data centers to meet the fast growth of high-performance computing. Toward this important goal, this paper presents a new complete power delivery architecture to bridge AC grid voltages to core levels for computing loads using only 2 conversion stages with new converter topologies. The first stage converts a commercial AC line voltage of 90V-110V to a 48-60V intermediate bus with power factor correction (PFC). The second stage converts the bus voltage to core voltages of ~1 V with high current density and simple duty cycle control. Individually, the first stage was measured at 96.1% peak efficiency for output currents ranging in 0-4.5 A, while the second stage achieved 90.7% peak efficiency with a load range of 0-220 A at 1 V. Measured peak power densities are 73 W/in3 for the first stage and 2020 W/in3 for the second stage. In combination, the direct conversion from a line AC voltage of ~110 VAC to 1 VDC achieves a peak efficiency of 84.1% while providing output currents up to 160A.</p>


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (17) ◽  
pp. 8259
Author(s):  
Yien Xu ◽  
Dejian Yang ◽  
Jiejie Huang ◽  
Xinsong Zhang ◽  
Liang Hua

With the fast growth in the penetration of wind power, doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) are recommended for their ability to enforce grid codes that provide inertial control services by releasing rotational energy. However, after supporting the system frequency, a second frequency drop (SFD) is prone to occurring to regain the rotor speed caused by the sudden reduction in output. In this article, we propose a torque limit-based fast stepwise inertial control scheme of a DFIG using a piecewise reference function for reducing the SFD while preserving the frequency nadir (FN) with less rotor energy released. To achieve the first objective, the power reference increases to the torque limit and then decays with the rotor speed toward the preset operating point. To achieve the second objective, the power reference smoothly lessens over time based on the exponential function. The performance of the proposed stepwise inertial control strategy was studied under various scenarios, including constant wind speed and ramp down wind speed conditions. The test results demonstrated that the frequency stability is preserved during the frequency support phase, while the second frequency drop and mechanical stress on the wind turbine reduce during the rotor speed restoration phase when the DFIG implements the proposed stepwise inertial control scheme.


2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Alejandro Torres-Haro ◽  
Jorge Verdín ◽  
Manuel R. Kirchmayr ◽  
Melchor Arellano-Plaza

AbstractAstaxanthin is a carotenoid with a number of assets useful for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Nowadays, it is mainly produced by chemical synthesis. However, the process leads to an enantiomeric mixture where the biologically assimilable forms (3R, 3′R or 3S, 3′S) are a minority. Microbial production of (3R, 3′R) astaxanthin by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is an appealing alternative due to its fast growth rate and easy large-scale production. In order to increase X. dendrorhous astaxanthin yields, random mutant strains able to produce from 6 to 10 mg/g dry mass have been generated; nevertheless, they often are unstable. On the other hand, site-directed mutant strains have also been obtained, but they increase only the yield of non-astaxanthin carotenoids. In this review, we insightfully analyze the metabolic carbon flow converging in astaxanthin biosynthesis and, by integrating the biological features of X. dendrorhous with available metabolic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data, as well as the knowledge gained with random and site-directed mutants that lead to increased carotenoids yield, we propose new metabolic engineering targets to increase astaxanthin biosynthesis.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Masahiro Nakamura ◽  
Michio Yoneda ◽  
Taizo Morioka ◽  
Akinori Takasuka ◽  
Nozomi Nishiumi

Abstract Many laboratory experiments on aquatic vertebrates that inhabit closed water or coastal areas have highlighted negative effects of fast growth on swimming performance. Nonetheless, field studies on pelagic fishes have provided evidence of survival advantages of faster growing individuals. To reconcile this contradiction, we examined the relationship between growth rate and swimming performance as a continuous function for juveniles of chub mackerel (scomber japonicus) using 3D tracking analysis. For experiments, 20, 24, 27 and 30 days-post-hatch individuals within the size range of 14.5–25.3 mm were used. We found that the growth–swimming (burst speed) relationship in chub mackerel was substantially positive and it was suggested to be supported by morphological traits such as muscle area, which also positively correlated with growth rate. This finding is consistent with field observations showing selective survival of fast-growing individuals of this species, reconciling the current contradiction between laboratory experiments and field observations. Growth was suggested to trade off with swimming performance, as reported in many previous studies, when it was extremely fast. Therefore, a dome-shaped quadratic curve described the relationship between growth rate and burst speed better than a linear or generalized linear model. These results, obtained from the rarely tested offshore species, strongly suggests the importance of experimental verification using animals that inhabit various types of habitats in understanding the principles underlying the evolution of growth–locomotor relationship.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (9) ◽  
pp. 722
Author(s):  
Thuong T. T. Nguyen ◽  
Jens Christian Frisvad ◽  
Paul M. Kirk ◽  
Hyo Jin Lim ◽  
Hyang Burm Lee

Three novel fungal species, Talaromyces gwangjuensis, T. koreana, and T. teleomorpha were found in Korea during an investigation of fungi in freshwater. The new species are described here using morphological characters, a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis of the ITS, BenA, CaM, RPB2 regions, and extrolite data. Talaromyces gwangjuensis is characterized by restricted growth on CYA, YES, monoverticillate and biverticillate conidiophores, and globose smooth-walled conidia. Talaromyces koreana is characterized by fast growth on MEA, biverticillate conidiophores, or sometimes with additional branches and the production of acid on CREA. Talaromyces teleomorpha is characterized by producing creamish-white or yellow ascomata on OA and MEA, restricted growth on CREA, and no asexual morph observed in the culture. A phylogenetic analysis of the ITS, BenA, CaM, and RPB2 sequences showed that the three new taxa form distinct monophyletic clades. Detailed descriptions, illustrations, and phylogenetic trees are provided.


2021 ◽  
pp. 102008
Author(s):  
Aline Giombelli-da-Silva ◽  
Cassiano Monteiro-Neto ◽  
André Martins Vaz-dos-Santos
Keyword(s):  

Recycling ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 58
Author(s):  
Patrizio Tratzi ◽  
Chiara Giuliani ◽  
Marco Torre ◽  
Laura Tomassetti ◽  
Roberto Petrucci ◽  
...  

The recycling of plastic waste is undergoing fast growth due to environmental, health and economic issues, and several blends of post-consumer and post-industrial polymeric materials have been characterized in recent years. However, most of these researches have focused on plastic containers and packaging, neglecting hard plastic waste. This study provides the first experimental characterization of different blends of hard plastic waste and virgin polypropylene in terms of melt index, differential scan calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical properties (tensile, impact and Shore hardness) and Vicat softening test. Compared to blends based on packaging plastic waste, significant differences were observed in terms of melt flow index (about 10 points higher for hard plastic waste). Mechanical properties, in particular yield strain, were instead quite similar (between 5 and 9%), despite a higher standard deviation being observed, up to 10%, probably due to incomplete homogenization. Results demonstrate that these worse performances could be mainly attributed to the presence of different additives, as well as to the presence of impurities or traces of other polymers, other than incomplete homogenization. On the other hand, acceptable results were obtained for selected blends; the optimal blending ratio was identified as 78% post-consumer waste and 22% post-industrial waste, meeting the requirement for injection molding and thermoforming.


Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (9) ◽  
pp. 1186
Author(s):  
Eko Hardiyanto ◽  
Maydra Inail ◽  
E. K. Sadanandan Nambiar

We report on experimental studies conducted in South Sumatra with interrelated objectives to (i) examine the trends in production covering 30 years, including three rotations of Acacia mangium followed by Eucalyptus pellita which replaced A. mangium for managing the widespread threat of diseases; (ii) understand the effects of inter-rotation slash and litter management applied to acacia (legacy effects) on E. pellita growth; (iii) assess the long term changes in the top soil layer arising from above; (iv) evaluate, through a network of experiments, across the landscape, the nature and extent of growth responses to additional phosphorus. This data was also used to explore some of the critical site and stand variables which determine the variations in productivity and responses to management. The current growth rates of E. pellita are lower than those achieved in A. mangium. The management-legacy effects by conserving site resources provides a sustainable base for the growth of E. pellita, but for further increase in productivity, additional management actions are necessary. Changes in soil pH, carbon, N and extractable P were relatively small after four rotations. Supply of P at planting gave wood volume gains at harvest, ranging from 16 to 66% across sites. The plinthite layer in the soil profile was related to productivity, with higher growth rates of E. pellita occurring when the plinthite was at deeper layers. There is much scope for increasing productivity per unit area in this landscape, and available knowledge can be synthesized into a package of best practices for application. Management should aim to improve the quality of inter-rotation management to ensure more than 90% survival, and fast growth rates during the first 2 years. We provide a framework for further research and for refining management to produce the much needed additional domestic wood supply for the local industry.


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