flow channel
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Reza Abdi ◽  
Ashley Rust ◽  
Jordyn M. Wolfand ◽  
Kristine Taniguchi-Quan ◽  
Katie Irving ◽  

Anthropogenic development has adversely affected river habitat and species diversity in urban rivers, and existing habitats are jeopardized by future uncertainties in water resources management and climate. The Los Angeles River (LAR), for example, is a highly modified system that has been mostly channelized for flood control purposes, has altered hydrologic and hydraulic conditions, and is thermally altered (warmed), which severely limits the habitat suitability for cold water fish species. Efforts are currently underway to provide suitable environmental flows and improve channel hydraulic conditions, such as depth and velocity, for adult fish migration from the Pacific Ocean to upstream spawning areas. However, the thermal responses of restoration alternatives for resident and migrating cold water fish have not been fully investigated. Using a mechanistic model, we simulated the LAR’s water temperature under baseline conditions and future alternative restoration scenarios for migration of the native, anadromous steelhead trout in Southern California and the historically resident Santa Ana sucker. We considered three scenarios: 1) increasing roughness of the low-flow channel, 2) increasing the depth and width of the low-flow channel, and 3) allowing subsurface inflow to the river at a soft bottom reach in the LA downtown area. Our analysis indicates that the maximum weekly average temperature (MaxWAT) in the baseline condition was 28.9°C, suggesting that the current river temperatures would act as a limiting factor during the steelhead migration season and habitat for Santa Ana sucker. The MaxWAT dropped about 3%–28°C after applying all the considered scenarios at the study site, which is 3°C higher than the determined steelhead survival threshold. Our simulations suggest that without consideration of thermal restoration, restoring hydraulic conditions may be insufficient to support cold water fish migration or year-round resident native fish populations, particularly with potential river temperature increases due to climate change.

Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 100
Haonan Ji ◽  
Bin Zou ◽  
Yongsheng Ma ◽  
Carlos F. Lange ◽  
Jikai Liu ◽  

Based on expert system theory and fluid–structure interaction (FSI), this paper suggests an intelligent design optimization system to derive the optimal shape of both the fluid and solid domain of flow channels. A parametric modeling scheme of flow channels is developed by design for additive manufacturing (DfAM). By changing design parameters, a series of flow channel models can be obtained. According to the design characteristics, the system can intelligently allocate suitable computational models to compute the flow field of a specific model. The pressure-based normal stress is abstracted from the results and transmitted to the solid region by the fluid–structure (FS) interface to analyze the strength of the structure. The design space is obtained by investigating the simulation results with the metamodeling method, which is further applied for pursuing design objectives under constraints. Finally, the improved design is derived by gradient-based optimization. This system can improve the accuracy of the FSI simulation and the efficiency of the optimization process. The design optimization of a flow channel in a simplified hydraulic manifold is applied as the case study to validate the feasibility of the proposed system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Masanori Yoshida ◽  
Yuko Tsuruta ◽  
Yuichiro Takako ◽  
Ayaka Kudo ◽  
Ryosuke Fujiwara

Abstract An inclined flow channel instrument that can be developed to be a structurally simple and easy-to-use rheometer was applied to control the thickness, specifically the viscosity and elasticity, of liquids thickened to support swallowing in nursing-care practice. Aqueous solutions containing salt or acid, which might be used as ingredients in drinks, were thickened with a commercial thickener. The thickener efficacy decreased because of the salt or acid in liquid phase. Analysis of the flows in the instrument by experimentation yielded a dimensionless relation representing changes of the Deborah number in the flow process, as indicated by the relative flow length, considering the shear rate in oral processing. One unique methodology to evaluate the viscoelasticities of thickened liquids during the swallowing process was presented utilizing the measurements such as elapsed time and velocity in the instrument.

Hamish R. Stephen ◽  
Sarah Boyall ◽  
Christiane Schotten ◽  
Richard A. Bourne ◽  
Nikil Kapur ◽  

Solution moving through an electrode, hence hopping from one electrode to another, has the greatest effect on an electrochemical reaction when compared to simple turns within a flow channel.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 376
Hui Song ◽  
Shuangxiu Fan ◽  
Dayi Qu

Different parameters of the circular-arc, trapezoidal and equal cross-section-shaped flow channels were analyzed, and the core volume goodness factor was used for the comparison of the three different types of flow channels. During the experiment, the Reynolds number (Re) on the air side ranged from 1200 to 5100. The results showed that the overall heat transfer performance of the three channels in this paper are circular-arc, trapezoidal and equal cross-section in order from good to bad. The overall heat transfer enhancement performance of the circular-arc flow channel is the best, which is 9–26.2% and 3.6–11.8% higher than that of the equal and trapezoidal cross-section flow channels, respectively. This showed that although the divergent flow channel structure reduces the fluid velocity in the flow process, it weakens the convective heat transfer performance in the flow channel. However, this gradually decreasing cross-sectional area improves the downstream heat transfer area and reduces the pressure drop in the flow process, thus promoting the overall heat transfer performance. With the increase in the circular radius (R), both the j and f factors increase, and the highest overall heat transfer performance is obtained at R = 300 mm. The convective heat transfer coefficient increases with the decrease in the inlet height.

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