design parameters
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2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-21
Author(s):  
Jan Moritz Joseph ◽  
Lennart Bamberg ◽  
Imad Hajjar ◽  
Behnam Razi Perjikolaei ◽  
Alberto García-Ortiz ◽  
...  

We introduce Ratatoskr , an open-source framework for in-depth power, performance, and area (PPA) analysis in Networks-on-Chips (NoCs) for 3D-integrated and heterogeneous System-on-Chips (SoCs). It covers all layers of abstraction by providing an NoC hardware implementation on Register Transfer Level (RTL), an NoC simulator on cycle-accurate level and an application model on transaction level. By this comprehensive approach, Ratatoskr can provide the following specific PPA analyses: Dynamic power of links can be measured within 2.4% accuracy of bit-level simulations while maintaining cycle-accurate simulation speed. Router power is determined from RTL-to-gate-level synthesis combined with cycle-accurate simulations. The performance of the whole NoC can be measured both via cycle-accurate and RTL simulations. The performance (i.e., timing) of individual routers and the NoC area are obtained from RTL synthesis results. Despite these manifold features, Ratatoskr offers easy two-step user interaction: (1) A single point-of-entry allows setting design parameters. (2) PPA reports are generated automatically. For both the input and the output, different levels of abstraction can be chosen for high-level rapid network analysis or low-level improvement of architectural details. The synthesizable NoC-RTL model shows improved total router power and area in comparison to a conventional standard router. As a forward-thinking and unique feature not found in other NoC PPA-measurement tools, Ratatoskr supports heterogeneous 3D integration that is one of the most promising integration paradigms for upcoming SoCs. Thereby, Ratatoskr lays the groundwork to design their communication architectures. The framework is publicly available at https://github.com/ratatoskr-project .


Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 611
Author(s):  
Cecilia Ciacci ◽  
Neri Banti ◽  
Vincenzo Di Naso ◽  
Frida Bazzocchi

In Italy in 2020, only 15.5% of school building heritage was retrofitted from an energy and environmental point of view. In this paper, the cost-optimal method was applied to two different school buildings belonging to the same Italian cold climate zone but characterized by different structural and technological solutions. The research aims at defining the cost-effective redevelopment solution among several ones proposed to apply to this building type. At the same time, this paper provides a critical analysis of the methodology applied, highlighting deficiencies related to a not proper evaluation of environmentally friendly retrofitting measures. In a cost-effective context, the main results show that the intervention on the heating system is more convenient than the retrofitting of the envelope. The energy saving is equal to about 35% for both considered schools. Among the different proposed requalification configurations, the adoption of PV (photovoltaic) electric generation is included. In this regard, an optimization procedure was implemented in a generative design environment to maximize energy production with reference to different design parameters. As a result, a solution with south oriented PV modules with a tilt angle of 42° and arranged in 0.7 m spaced rows proved to be the most effective.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 836
Author(s):  
Nilo Cesar Consoli ◽  
Jordanna Chamon Vogt ◽  
João Paulo Sousa Silva ◽  
Helder Mansur Chaves ◽  
Hugo Carlos Scheuermann Filho ◽  
...  

Failures of tailings dams, primarily due to liquefaction, have occurred in Brazil in recent years. These events have prompted the Brazilian government to place restrictions on the construction of new dams, as iron ore tailings deposited behind upstream dams by spigotting have been shown to have low in situ densities and strengths and are prone to failure. This work proposes a new trend for tailings disposal: stacking compacted filtered ore tailings–Portland cement blends. As part of the proposal, it analyses the behaviour of compacted iron ore tailings–Portland cement blends, considering the use of small amounts of Portland cement under distinct compaction degrees. With the intention of evaluating the stress–strain–strength–durability behaviour of the blends, the following tests were carried out: unconfined compression tests; pulse velocity tests; wetting–drying tests; and standard drained triaxial compression tests with internal measurement of strains. This is the first study performed to determine the strength and initial shear stiffness evolution of iron ore tailings–Portland cement blends during their curing time, as well friction angle and cohesion intercept. This manuscript postulates an analysis of original experimental results centred on the porosity/cement index (η/Civ). This index can help select the cement quantity and density for important design parameters of compacted iron ore tailings–cement blends required in geotechnical engineering projects such as the proposed compacted filtered iron ore tailings–cement blends stacking.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Author(s):  
Massimo Masi ◽  
Piero Danieli ◽  
Andrea Lazzaretto

Abstract The paper deals with the aerodynamic performance of ducted axial-flow fans available in the 2020 market and aims to create a general picture of the best designs and design trends, as a tool for fan designers. To this end, the paper first presents the general formulation of the similarity approach to the fan performance analysis, including the effects of rotational speed (which affects the validity of the Reynolds similarity) and turbomachine size (which can hinder the perfect geometrical similarity of some shape details). The second part reports a statistical survey of the axial-flow fan performance based on data from catalogues of major manufacturers, and compares the resulting Cordier-lines with optimum fan designs from empirical or CFD-based models available in the literature. In addition to the global performance at maximum aeraulic and total-to-static efficiencies, this survey uses the form of dimensionless Balje-Cordier charts to identify the trends and values of other design parameters, such as hub-to-tip ratio, blade count, and blade positioning angle. As a result, a summary of the aerodynamic performance of year 2020 best designs, the improvements achieved during the last forty years, and the present design trends in contra-rotating, vane-axial, and tube-axial fan types are made available to fan designers.


Author(s):  
Haichao Lv ◽  
Xiankun Huang ◽  
Lixia Kang ◽  
Yongzhong Liu

Abstract The capacity fading of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is reported by a linear dependency followed by a nonlinear ageing process, where the former is dominated by solid electrolyte interphase formation and reformation (SEI and SEI-re), while the latter is by lithium plating. In this work, a two-stage model is developed to quantitatively predict the turning point during the capacity fading of LIBs, which couples the electrochemical and thermal models accounting for SEI, SEI-re and lithium plating. Accordingly, a quantitative evaluation method of the turning point is proposed by attributing the transition of the capacity fading to the balance of consumption of active lithium for SEI growth and lithium plating per cycle in the two stages. The characteristics of capacity fading of LIBs are quantitatively analyzed under various operation conditions and design parameters. An NCM111/graphite battery is used to validate the proposed model. The results shows the validity of the proposed model. The turning points of the capacity fading processes are influenced by operation and design parameters of LIBs, where lithium plating or SEI growth reign. According to the effect on the turning point, the order of significance of the factors are charging current, charging cut-off voltage, temperature and N/P ratio, respectively.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Author(s):  
Xuepeng Zhang ◽  
Yujing Jiang ◽  
Yue Cai ◽  
Xin Li ◽  
Naser Golsanami ◽  
...  

Stochastic medium (SM) theory is a practical method in ground settlement prediction, while its nonintegrable double integral form makes the solution process complicated. A simplified analytical solution based on the SM theory is developed to predict the ground movement in tunneling excavation. With the simplified solution, the ground movement for single tunnel and twin tunnels could be predicted based on the gap parameter G and influence angle β. A feasible approach is developed to estimate these two parameters using the maximum ground settlement Smax and tunnel design parameters, including tunnel depth H and diameter R. The proposed approach can be used to predict the ground movement curve for both circular and noncircular cross section tunnels. To validate its accuracy, the results predicted by the simplified procedure are compared with those obtained by the SM theory and measured in situ. The comparisons show that the current results agree well with those obtained by the SM theory and measured in situ. The comparison of five tunnels in literature illustrates that the simplified method can provide a more reasonable prediction for the ground movement induced by tunneling.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 361
Author(s):  
Alexander Paszicsnyek ◽  
Olivia Jo ◽  
Harshi Sandeepa Rupasinghe ◽  
David C. Ackland ◽  
Thomas Treseder ◽  
...  

Background: Acromial and scapular spine fractures after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) can be devastating complications leading to substantial functional impairments. The purpose of this study was to review factors associated with increased acromial and scapular spine strain after RTSA from a biomechanical standpoint. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted based on PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Embase, OVID Medline, and CENTRAL databases were searched and strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Each article was assessed using the modified Downs and Black checklist to appraise the quality of included studies. Study selection, extraction of data, and assessment of methodological quality were carried out independently by two of the authors. Only biomechanical studies were considered. Results: Six biomechanical studies evaluated factors associated with increased acromial and scapular spine strain and stress. Significant increases in acromial and scapular spine strain were found with increasing lateralization of the glenosphere in four of the included studies. In two studies, glenosphere inferiorization consistently reduced acromial strain. The results concerning humeral lateralization were variable between four studies. Humeral component neck-shaft angle had no significant effect on acromial strain as analysed in one study. One study showed that scapular spine strain was significantly increased with a more posteriorly oriented acromion (55° vs. 43°; p < 0.001). Another study showed that the transection of the coracoacromial ligament increased scapular spine strain in all abduction angles (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Glenoid lateralization was consistently associated with increased acromial and scapular spine strain, whereas inferiorization of the glenosphere reduced strain in the biomechanical studies analysed in this systematic review. Humeral-sided lateralization may increase or decrease acromial or scapular spine strain. Independent of different design parameters, the transection of the coracoacromial ligament resulted in significantly increased strains and scapular spine strains were also increased when the acromion was more posteriorly oriented. The results found in this systematic review of biomechanical in-silico and in-vitro studies may help in the surgical planning of RTSA to mitigate complications associated with acromion and scapular spine fracture.


Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 530
Author(s):  
Maria Dems ◽  
Krzysztof Komeza ◽  
Jacek Szulakowski ◽  
Witold Kubiak

Speed-controlled induction motors have the most significant potential for energy savings. The greatest problems with obtaining high efficiency occur in motors with a wide range of rotational speed regulation, as in the motors for driving industrial washing machines under consideration. While for the highest speeds, the dominant phenomenon is at field weakening. The problem is obtaining the optimal size of the magnetic flux for low rotation speed to prevent excessive saturation increasing current, and reduction of efficiency. This problem is usually solved by selecting the appropriate control for an already built machine. The authors propose a combination of activities when designing the motor structure with the selection of proper control, which allows for high efficiency. Since the drive does not require precise speed control or obtaining the required dynamics, it was possible to use an inexpensive control in an open loop, avoiding the cost of transmitters. Furthermore, the number of design parameters that are subject to change is significantly limited by technological factors and the available space in the washing machine. Proper parameter selection was made using a peripheral method assisted by field-circuit simulations. The proposed approach can be used in designing structures and selecting motors controls for other applications.


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