wastewater quality
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Author(s):  
Yayat Hidayat ◽  
Wahyu Purwakusuma ◽  
Sri Malahayati Yusuf ◽  
Latief Mahir Rachman ◽  
Enni Dwi Wahjunie ◽  
...  

The research is aimed to analyze leachate, surface water and ground water characteristics around  Galuga landfill site, Bogor District. Water samples had been taken in dry season of 2014 and in the end of rainy season of 2015 from several sites in areas around Galuga landfills which included leachate water, surface water, and ground water.  Leachate, surface water and ground water had   temperature and pH in normal ranges; whereas nitrate and Pb contents were high to very high levels, especially in  site adjacent to waste piles. The concentrations decreased in line with increasing distance from waste piles. Higher content of nitrate in leachate occurred in dry season, but in well water it was found in rainy season. Meanwhile,  Pb content in well water were high, both in dry and rainy seasons. Concentrations of nitrate and Pb in leachate water were higher than wastewater quality standard, so that the leachate water were not safe to be discharged directly to natural water body. The high content of nitrate and Pb caused the well water unsuitable to be consumed without water treatment processing.


Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 85
Author(s):  
Barbara Wodecka ◽  
Jakub Drewnowski ◽  
Anita Białek ◽  
Ewa Łazuka ◽  
Joanna Szulżyk-Cieplak

One of the important factors determining the biochemical processes in bioreactors is the quality of the wastewater inflow to the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Information on the quality of wastewater, sufficiently in advance, makes it possible to properly select bioreactor settings to obtain optimal process conditions. This paper presents the use of classification models to predict the variability of wastewater quality at the inflow to wastewater treatment plants, the values of which depend only on the amount of inflowing wastewater. The methodology of an expert system to predict selected indicators of wastewater quality at the inflow to the treatment plant (biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, and ammonium nitrogen) on the example of a selected WWTP—Sitkówka Nowiny, was presented. In the considered system concept, a division of the values of measured wastewater quality indices into lower (reduced values of indicators in relation to average), average (typical and most common values), and upper (increased values) were adopted. On the basis of the calculations performed, it was found that the values of the selected wastewater quality indicators can be identified with sufficient accuracy by means of the determined statistical models based on the support vector machines and boosted trees methods.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ricardo Mejía ◽  
Aymer Maturana ◽  
Diego Gómez ◽  
Christian Quintero ◽  
Luis Arismendy ◽  
...  

Abstract To reduce demand and discharge, instead of industrial wastewater being poorly treated and disposed of, it can be recycled, reused, or recovered if it is properly managed, thus having a substantial decrease in the water requirement and environmental impacts. The challenge is to select the appropriate process or combination of processes to achieve this based on the wastewater quality. Consequently, the objective of this investigation is to review every technology from conventional through advanced, for reliable and sustainable wastewater treatment and derived sludges, focusing on advantages, disadvantages, and technical gaps for development. Even though there is a wide range of possible technologies, it was evinced that there is huge potential to exploit and make them economically and sustainably viable for waste processing and circular economy, even in the mature massively implemented wastewater treatment technologies in the industry. Overall, we identify that independently from the technology to be studied, the future investigations on every unit, especially on those not vastly implemented, should be focused on: (1) The capacity in removing selected pollutants and decreasing impurities, (2) energy efficiency, (3) environmental safety, (4) economic viability, (5) hybrid processes, and (6) sustainability by waste processing.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Euis Nurul Hidayah ◽  
Okik Hendriyanto Cahyonugroho ◽  
Elita Nurfitriyani Sulistyo ◽  
Nieke Karnangingroem

Abstract Implementation microalgae has been considered for enhancing effluent wastewater quality. However, algae can cause environmental issues due to algae released extracellular organic matter, algal organic matter, instead of bacteria-derived organic matter in the biological process. The objectives of this study are to investigate the characteristics of dissolved effluent organic matter as algal-derived organic and bacteria-derived organic during the oxidation ditch process. Experiments were conducted in the oxidation ditch without algae, with Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris. The results showed dissolved effluent organic matter increased into higher dissolved organic carbon, more aromatic and hydrophobic than that before treatment. Fluorescence spectroscopy identified two component, namely aromatic protein-like at excitation/emission 230/345 nm and soluble microbial products-like at 320/345 nm after treatment, instead of fulvic acid-like at 230/420 nm and humic acid-like at 320/420 nm in raw wastewater. Fractionation of dissolved organic fluorescence based on average molecular weight cut-offs (MWCOs) has obtained that fractions aromatic protein-like, fulvic acid-like, humic acid-like, and soluble microbial products-like has respectively a high MWCOs 50,000 Da, a high to low MWCOs <1650 Da, medium MWCOs 1650 Da to low MWCOs. Biological oxidation ditch under symbiosis algal-bacteria generated humic acid-like and fulvic acid-like with a higher MWCOs than oxidation without algal. The quality and quantity of dissolved effluent organic matter in oxidation ditch algal reactor has been significant affected by algal-bacteria symbiotic.


Author(s):  
Grazyna Sakson ◽  
Agnieszka Brzezinska ◽  
Dawid Bandzierz ◽  
Dorota Olejnik ◽  
Małgorzata Jedrzejczak ◽  
...  

AbstractSolving urban wastewater management problems requires knowledge of wastewater composition and variability. In the case of combined sewerage, this applies to both dry and wet weather. Wastewater composition is changing as a result of the appearance of new substances on the market, the changes in inhabitant lifestyle and the catchment characteristic; therefore, it must be constantly monitored. At the same time, due to the time-consuming and high costs of measurement campaigns, solutions that could limit their scope and facilitate the interpretation of the results are sought. This paper presents the results of the measurement campaign conducted in 2018–2021. The aim of the monitoring was, inter alia, assessment of wastewater composition in terms of threats to wastewater treatment plant and urban rivers, which are receivers of discharge from combined sewer overflows. The obtained results were analyzed using the multivariate statistical methods: Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis. However, the applied methods did not allow for the full identification of the relationship between the wastewater quality parameters as well as the differences and similarities in the wastewater composition from individual parts of the city, which could simplify and reduce the measurement campaigns in the future. Therefore, in the case of large urban catchments, it is necessary to introduce other solutions to control the wastewater composition.


2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 127-138
Author(s):  
Hafasatya Maharani Putri ◽  
Sri Puji Saraswati ◽  
Johan Syafri Mahathir

Sebuah Instalasi Pengolahan Air Limbah (IPAL) di asrama mahasiswi UGM, Yogyakarta memiliki unit reaktor yang terdiri dari ekualisasi, aerasi 1, aerasi 2 dan clarifier dengan proses aerasi secara intermiten menggunakan Microbubble Generator (MBG) dengan fase aerasi dan tanpa aerasi masing-masing selama 15 menit. IPAL tersebut dibangun sebagai upaya dalam memenuhi standar Green Building bagi bangunan lama asrama di UGM untuk mengolah air limbah grey water. Hasil olahan air limbah akan dimanfaatkan di lingkungan asrama. Selama 208 hari beroperasi, kajian mengenai performa IPAL belum pernah dilakukan. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan kajian untuk mengetahui performa dan konsumsi energi pada IPAL dalam menyisihkan parameter pencemar berupa COD, nitrogen dan fosfat. Kajian dilakukan selama 81 hari pengamatan dengan menguji parameter kualitas air limbah pada setiap unit pengolahan. Parameter COD dan amonia telah memenuhi baku mutu Peraturan Menteri Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan No. 68 Tahun 2016 tentang Baku Mutu Air Limbah Domestik, sedangkan parameter fosfat masih belum memenuhi baku mutu Peraturan Daerah D.I.Y. No.7 Tahun 2016 mengenai kegiatan IPAL Komunal. Hasil pengamatan pada performa IPAL, menunjukkan kedua tangki aerasi memiliki performa yang hampir sama, namun keberadaan tangki aerasi 2 tidak memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan dalam menyisihkan parameter pencemar. Pada tangki aerasi 1, efisiensi penyisihan COD mencapai rata-rata sebesar 73,6±17,46%, penyisihan PO4-P sebesar 39,12±14,96%, penyisihan total nitrogen sebesar 56,15±19,6%, efisiensi nitrifikasi sebesar 73,1±20.07% dan efisiensi denitrifikasi sebesar 61,72±27,48%. Total konsumsi energi pada IPAL dengan proses aerasi intermiten, dengan debit rerata 537,84 l/hari sebesar 14,12 kWh/m3 dan biaya sebesar Rp. 20.414/m3. Urutan konsumsi energi terbesar adalah penyisihan fosfat sebesar 5,10 kWh/gPO4-P, kemudian penyisihan amonia sebesar 1,79 kWh/gNH3-N, penyisihan TN sebesar 1,95 kWh/gTN dan penyisihan COD sebesar 0,45 kWh/gCOD. ABSTRACTA Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in the student dormitory of UGM, Yogyakarta has a reactor unit consists of an equalization, aeration 1, aeration 2, and clarifier with intermittent aeration process using a Microbubble Generator (MBG) with or without aeration for 15 minutes each. The WWTP was built as an effort to meet the Green Building standards for the old dormitory at UGM to make better process of grey water. The processed wastewater will be used for the dormitory environment. Operated for 208 days, there was no former studies for the WWTP.  Therefore, a study is needed to determine performance and energy consumption of the WWTP in removing pollutant parameters consisting of COD, nitrogen and phosphate. The study was carried out for 81 days of observation by testing the wastewater quality parameters in each treatment unit. COD and ammonia parameters have met the quality standards of the Regulation of the Minister of Environment and Forestry No. 68 of 2016 concerning Domestic Wastewater Quality Standards, while phosphate doesn’t meet the quality standards of Regional Regulation D.I.Y. No. 7 of 2016 concerning Communal WWTP Activities. Results shows the performance from two aeration tanks are almost the same, but the existence of aeration tank 2 doesn’t have a significant effect. The results in aeration tank 1 showed the COD removal efficiency reached an average of 73.6±17.46%, PO4-P removal 39.12±14.96%, total nitrogen removal 56.15±19.6%, the nitrification efficiency 73.1±20.07%  the denitrification efficiency 61.72±27.48%. The total energy consumption with intermittent aeration process with an average discharge of 537.84 l/day is 14.12 kWh/m3 and a cost of Rp. 20,414/m3 with the largest energy use being phosphate removal at 5.10 kWh/gPO4-P, then ammonia removal at 1.79 kWh/gNH3-N, TN removal at 1.95 kWh/gTN and COD removal at 0.45 kWh/gCOD.


2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 69-82
Author(s):  
Allen Kurniawan ◽  
Fatihaturrizky Amelia ◽  
Adhirajasa Wirayudhatama ◽  
Sulpa Yudha Prawira

This study developed a combination of Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) for the acid fermentation and the Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) post-denitrification through high nitrite injection. Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs) as a substrate for the post-denitrification process were optimally produced in the acid fermentation process. The aim of this study was to obtain the estimation of biokinetic values to predict the effluent wastewater quality in ABR post-denitrification process under unsteady state. The reactor was operated for HRT 7 days at temperature 25-28 ˚C and pH 6-7,2. The influent and effluent substrate concentration were monitored continuously for 160 days. Post-denitrification biokinetic from the Contois equation resulted in the value of hydrolysis rate (Kh) of 0.077 day-1, the substrate transport rate (k) of 4.364×10-6 Lmg-1day-1, maximum specific growth rate (μmax) of 0.559 day-1, half saturation constant (KS) of 0.209 mgL-1, microbial decay coefficient (b) of 0.0145 days-1; yield coefficient (Y) of 0.084 g-VSSg-COD-1. The validation of biokinetic parameters based on statistical analysis showed fairly precise results following the trend of experimental data to determine the substrate concentration in the effluent unit. Therefore, the biokinetic values can be applied in the design of ABR post-denitrification using primary sludge incorporation with high strength nitrate.Keywords:  Anaerobic baffled reactor, biokinetics, Contois, hydrolysis, post-denitrification.


Author(s):  
Ghazal Srivastava ◽  
Absar Ahmad Kazmi

Abstract To substantiate and interpret the performance of the Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) processes with simultaneous nitrogen removal in five full-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBR) systems (with or without pre-anoxic/anaerobic selector) across India, conventional microscopic examinations were performed. Regular examining and cyclic behavior evaluation studies specified that these systems worked for EBPR with effectiveness depending on the wastewater quality and operational steadiness. Treatment with Neisser stain for identifying polyphosphates (poly-P) and Sudan black B stain for observing poly-β-hydroxybutyrates (PHB) granules showed that the enriched biomass of the SBR plants was very diverse concerning morphology, residing populations of traditional rod-shaped PAOs, tetrad (or Sarcina-like cells) forming organisms (submitted as TFOs instead of GAOs), diplococci-shaped cells, and staphylococci-like clustered populations (CC), including few filaments which correlate well with biochemical processes undergoing in SBR plants. SBR plants with readily biodegradable chemical oxygen demand (rbCOD) fraction in COD &gt; 16% and rbCOD/TP ∼10–20 in Varanasi, Mumbai, and Gurgaon, respectively, have performed for &gt;20% EBPR (∼77.8%, ∼76.6%, and ∼84.8% TP removal, respectively) as well as &gt;85% Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification (SND). This study can open novel dimensions for optimization by relating microscopic observations (qualitative examination) with the processes undergoing in the plants under varied physicochemical parameters.


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