For non-linear systems (NLSs), the state estimation problem is an essential and important problem. This paper deals with the nonlinear state estimation problems in nonlinear and non-Gaussian systems. Recently, the Bayesian filter designer based on the Bayesian principle has been widely applied to the state estimation problem in NLSs. However, we assume that the state estimation models are nonlinear and non-Gaussian, applying traditional, typical nonlinear filtering methods, and there is no precise result for the system state estimation problem. Therefore, the larger the estimation error, the lower the estimation accuracy. To perfect the imperfections, a projection filtering method (PFM) based on the Bayesian estimation approach is applied to estimate the state. First, this paper constructs its projection symmetric interval to select the basis function. Second, the prior probability density of NLSs can be projected into the basis function space, and the prior probability density solution can be solved by using the Fokker–Planck Equation (FPE). According to the Bayes formula, the proposed estimator utilizes the basis function in projected space to iteratively calculate the posterior probability density; thus, it avoids calculating the partial differential equation. By taking two illustrative examples, it is also compared with the traditional UKF and PF algorithm, and the numerical experiment results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the novel nonlinear state estimation filter algorithm.