Aquaporin 4 Antibody
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Medicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 100 (38) ◽  
pp. e27207
Jiaying Lei ◽  
Hong Wang

Steven Toh ◽  
Chean Chung Shen

Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy (CRION) is a recently described form of recurrent isolated subacute optic neuropathy, with accumulating evidence that it is a nosological distinct entity. The condition is highly responsive to systemic steroid treatment and prone to relapse on steroid withdrawal. Diagnosis and management of this condition is often challenging. This 33-year-old lady with family history of multiple sclerosis (MS), with uniocular visual loss of her right eye since 2 years old without apparent cause, presented with reduction of vision and loss of colour vision in the left eye, associated with painful eye movement. There was internuclear ophthalmoplegia but slit lamp examination were unremarkable. She had no other related sensory or motor symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not reveal any features of MS. Aquaporin-4 antibody, anti-MOG and gene testing for Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy were all negative. Metabolic, infective, and other autoimmune causes were also excluded. Visual evoked potential studies of left eye showed a mild reduction in amplitude with no prolongation of latency. Her multiple optic neuritis recurrences were treated with intravenous steroids followed by tapering regime of oral prednisolone with good effect. Knowledge of this rare condition as part of the differential diagnoses of possible aetiologies of optic neuropathy is important among Ophthalmologists, as prompt diagnosis and steroid treatment helped reduce the associated risk of blindness. Multiple relapses after initial successful treatment of inflammatory optic neuropathy should raise the suspicion of CRION.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue-2: 2021 Page: S19

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (6) ◽  
pp. e1068
Frederike Cosima Oertel ◽  
Svenja Specovius ◽  
Hanna G. Zimmermann ◽  
Claudia Chien ◽  
Seyedamirhosein Motamedi ◽  

Background and ObjectivesTo determine optic nerve and retinal damage in aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-IgG)-seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) in a large international cohort after previous studies have been limited by small and heterogeneous cohorts.MethodsThe cross-sectional Collaborative Retrospective Study on retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) in neuromyelitis optica collected retrospective data from 22 centers. Of 653 screened participants, we included 283 AQP4-IgG–seropositive patients with NMOSD and 72 healthy controls (HCs). Participants underwent OCT with central reading including quality control and intraretinal segmentation. The primary outcome was thickness of combined ganglion cell and inner plexiform (GCIP) layer; secondary outcomes were thickness of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and visual acuity (VA).ResultsEyes with ON (NMOSD-ON, N = 260) or without ON (NMOSD-NON, N = 241) were assessed compared with HCs (N = 136). In NMOSD-ON, GCIP layer (57.4 ± 12.2 μm) was reduced compared with HC (GCIP layer: 81.4 ± 5.7 μm, p < 0.001). GCIP layer loss (−22.7 μm) after the first ON was higher than after the next (−3.5 μm) and subsequent episodes. pRNFL observations were similar. NMOSD-NON exhibited reduced GCIP layer but not pRNFL compared with HC. VA was greatly reduced in NMOSD-ON compared with HC eyes, but did not differ between NMOSD-NON and HC.DiscussionOur results emphasize that attack prevention is key to avoid severe neuroaxonal damage and vision loss caused by ON in NMOSD. Therapies ameliorating attack-related damage, especially during a first attack, are an unmet clinical need. Mild signs of neuroaxonal changes without apparent vision loss in ON-unaffected eyes might be solely due to contralateral ON attacks and do not suggest clinically relevant progression but need further investigation.

Mark J Tullman ◽  
Aram Zabeti ◽  
Scott Vuocolo ◽  
Quinn Dinh

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by recurrent optic neuritis and transverse myelitis often resulting in severe disability. Anti–aquaporin-4–immunoglobulin (Ig) G is a pathogenic product of CD19-positive plasma cells found in most, but not all, individuals with NMOSD and is associated with immune-mediated neurologic injury. Inebilizumab, an afucosylated humanized IgG1 κ, anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody, may target pathogenic CD19-expressing B cells. In a Phase II/III trial, inebilizumab significantly reduced the proportion of participants experiencing an NMOSD attack and was well tolerated versus placebo. Fewer treated participants had worsening disability than those receiving placebo. Inebilizumab was approved in 2020 by the US FDA for treatment of anti–aquaporin-4 antibody positive NMOSD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-3
Sangam Shah ◽  
Rajeev Ojha ◽  
Sanjeeta Sitaula ◽  
Dosti Regmi ◽  
Ragesh Karn ◽  

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an immune-mediated inflammatory condition involving spinal cord and optic nerves. Diagnosis of NMOSD is done by aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4) in patients with optic neuritis. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) expressed on the oligodendrocyte cell surface and on the outermost cell surface of the myelin sheath may also be present in patients with NMOSD bilateral optic neuritis. Here, we describe a case of a thirty-nine-year-old-female with recurrent bilateral optic neuritis with positive anti-MOG antibody, and anti-MOG syndrome has not previously been reported from Nepal.

2021 ◽  
pp. 135245852110397
Omar Abdel-Mannan ◽  
Yael Hacohen

Haojie Xie ◽  
Yingzhe Shao ◽  
Juan Du ◽  
Yajun Song ◽  
Yanfei Li ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Zakaria Saied ◽  
Fatma Nabli ◽  
Amine Rachdi ◽  
Cyrine Jeridi ◽  
Bissene Douma ◽  

Abstract Background Concomitant diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease and pulmonary tuberculosis has rarely been reported. Case report We report a case involving a young Tunisian male patient who developed dry cough followed, 2 months later, by weakness in the lower limbs. The findings of central nervous system imaging and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positivity were compatible with the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease. Constellation of the clinical and the typical radiological pulmonary findings in our patient, coming from an endemic region, allowed the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, although sputum smear examination for acid-fast bacilli and cultures was negative. The patient received anti-tuberculous polytherapy associated with immunomodulation, consisting of methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulins. Pulmonary infection symptoms initially improved but with no motor recovery. The patient suddenly died at home 4 months after the onset of the first symptoms. Current data regarding the clinical presentation of this underreported concomitant or associated condition, the possible pathophysiological mechanisms, and the therapeutic options were reviewed. Conclusions This case underscores the necessity to understand the exact mechanism of these coincident entities and to clarify the best immunomodulatory choice since immunosuppression targeting neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease can lead to dissemination of pulmonary tuberculosis.

2021 ◽  
pp. jnnp-2021-326386
Hiroki Masuda ◽  
Masahiro Mori ◽  
Shigeki Hirano ◽  
Akiyuki Uzawa ◽  
Tomohiko Uchida ◽  

ObjectiveTo investigate longitudinal brain atrophy in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD).MethodsWe investigated the longitudinal brain atrophy rate in patients with aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMOSD (AQP4+NMOSD) and those with multiple sclerosis (MS) in a retrospective cohort study. Brain volume was calculated with statistical parametric mapping-12.ResultsWe enrolled 36 patients with AQP4+NMOSD and 60 with MS. Patients with NMOSD were older and had a higher Kurtzke’s expanded disability status scale score at baseline MRI compared with those with MS. Disease duration, annual relapse rate and intervals from the last attack and from disease-modifying drugs initiation were not significantly different between the two groups. Lower normalised lesion volume and higher normalised white matter volume were found in patients with NMOSD compared with those with MS at baseline MRI. However, the annualised atrophy rate of normalised brain volume was similar between the NMOSD (median 0.47; IQR 0.75; p=0.49) and MS (median 0.46; IQR 0.84) groups. After adjustment of age and the presence of clinical relapse, no differences of the annualised atrophy rate of normalised brain volume also were found for NMOSD and MS. Patients with AQP4+NMOSD with long cord lesion showed higher annualised atrophy rate of normalised grey matter volume compared with those without long cord lesion.ConclusionsSilent progression of brain atrophy was present in patients with AQP4+NMOSD, as shown in patients with MS, even in the clinically inactive age-matched cases. Subclinical dying back degeneration may explain the brain atrophy in patients with AQP4 +NMOSD.

2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Gregory B. Caudill ◽  
Mitchell J. Wolin

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