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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-19
Feng Lu ◽  
Wei Li ◽  
Song Lin ◽  
Chengwangli Peng ◽  
Zhiyong Wang ◽  

Wireless capsule endoscopy is a modern non-invasive Internet of Medical Imaging Things that has been increasingly used in gastrointestinal tract examination. With about one gigabyte image data generated for a patient in each examination, automatic lesion detection is highly desirable to improve the efficiency of the diagnosis process and mitigate human errors. Despite many approaches for lesion detection have been proposed, they mainly focus on large lesions and are not directly applicable to tiny lesions due to the limitations of feature representation. As bleeding lesions are a common symptom in most serious gastrointestinal diseases, detecting tiny bleeding lesions is extremely important for early diagnosis of those diseases, which is highly relevant to the survival, treatment, and expenses of patients. In this article, a method is proposed to extract and fuse multi-scale deep features for detecting and locating both large and tiny lesions. A feature extracting network is first used as our backbone network to extract the basic features from wireless capsule endoscopy images, and then at each layer multiple regions could be identified as potential lesions. As a result, the features maps of those potential lesions are obtained at each level and fused in a top-down manner to the fully connected layer for producing final detection results. Our proposed method has been evaluated on a clinical dataset that contains 20,000 wireless capsule endoscopy images with clinical annotation. Experimental results demonstrate that our method can achieve 98.9% prediction accuracy and 93.5% score, which has a significant performance improvement of up to 31.69% and 22.12% in terms of recall rate and score, respectively, when compared to the state-of-the-art approaches for both large and tiny bleeding lesions. Moreover, our model also has the highest AP and the best medical diagnosis performance compared to state-of-the-art multi-scale models.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Dianying Liu ◽  
Shaohua Liu ◽  
Meihong Xiu ◽  
Hongdong Deng ◽  
Huiyun Guo ◽  

BackgroundSexual dysfunction is a common symptom in patients with schizophrenia, especially in chronically medicated patients. However, the relationship between sexual dysfunction and emotional response to sexual arousal in male patients with schizophrenia remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the incidence, risk factors of sexual dysfunction in males, and their clinical correlations to sexual arousal in male patients with schizophrenia in China.MethodsA total of 162 male patients, aged 18–50 years, with schizophrenia were recruited from a psychiatric hospital in Ganzhou. The clinical symptoms were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The Arizona Sexual Experience Scale was utilized to evaluate sexual dysfunction. Erotic images were selected from International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Sixty-eight out of the 162 subjects completed the erotic pictures reactivity task.ResultsOverall, 48 (29.6%) patients were measured as having global sexual dysfunction, 72 (44.4%) patients as having strength of sex drive dysfunction, 51 (31.5%) patients as having sexual arousal dysfunction, 55 (34.0%) patients as having penile erection dysfunction, 60 (37.0%) patients as having reached orgasm dysfunction, and 60 (37.0%) patients as having satisfaction with orgasm dysfunction. The sexual dysfunction patients had significantly higher scores on the negative symptoms of the PANSS. The only important predictor of sexual dysfunction was the severity of PANSS negative factor. The sense of pleasure and arousal post viewing erotic images in the sexual dysfunction group were lower compared to the non-sexual dysfunction group. The sense of pleasure and approach motivation were significantly negatively correlated with the severity of sexual dysfunction.ConclusionsThis study shows that nearly one-third of young and middle-aged chronically medicated male inpatients with schizophrenia suffer from sexual dysfunction. The negative factor of the PANSS can be regarded as the risk factor of sexual dysfunction. Schizophrenia patients with sexual dysfunction experienced lower pleasure and higher avoidance motivation than non-sexual dysfunction patients when exposed to erotic stimuli.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 101
Augusto Pereira ◽  
Manuel Herrero-Trujillano ◽  
Gema Vaquero ◽  
Lucia Fuentes ◽  
Sofia Gonzalez ◽  

Background: Although several treatments are currently available for chronic pelvic pain, 30–60% of patients do not respond to them. Therefore, these therapeutic options require a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying endometriosis-induced pain. This study focuses on pain management after failure of conventional therapy. Methods: We reviewed clinical data from 46 patients with endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain unresponsive to conventional therapies at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital Madrid, Spain from 2018 to 2021. Demographic data, clinical and exploratory findings, treatment received, and outcomes were collected. Results: Median age was 41.5 years, and median pain intensity was VAS: 7.8/10. Nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain were identified in 98% and 70% of patients, respectively. The most common symptom was abdominal pain (78.2%) followed by pain with sexual intercourse (65.2%), rectal pain (52.1%), and urologic pain (36.9%). A total of 43% of patients responded to treatment with neuromodulators. Combined therapies for myofascial pain syndrome, as well as treatment of visceral pain with inferior or superior hypogastric plexus blocks, proved to be very beneficial. S3 pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) plus inferior hypogastric plexus block or botulinum toxin enabled us to prolong response time by more than 3.5 months. Conclusion: Treatment of the unresponsive patient should be interdisciplinary. Depending on the history and exploratory findings, therapy should preferably be combined with neuromodulators, myofascial pain therapies, and S3 PRF plus inferior hypogastric plexus blockade.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yifan Yu ◽  
Yufang Chen ◽  
Teng Lou ◽  
Xia Shen

Introduction: Proprioceptive impairment is a common symptom after stroke. Clarifying how proprioception correlates with motor function after stroke may be helpful in optimizing proprioception-augmented movement training. Previous studies have shown inconsistent findings. A meta-analysis is an optimal method to explore the correlation and identify the factors contributing to these inconsistencies.Objective: To explore the correlation between proprioception and motor function after stroke through a meta-analysis, taking into account characteristics of the measurements used in these studies.Methods: We searched multiple databases until November 2021 for eligible studies that measured both proprioception and motor functions in persons with stroke and reported their correlation or data for correlation analysis. A meta-analysis of the correlations was performed. The subgroup analysis and meta-regression were further conducted to investigate potential factors contributing to the heterogeneity of correlation strength, based on the participants' characteristics, proprioception, and motor function measures.Results: In total, 28 studies comprising of 1,829 participants with stroke were included in the meta-analysis. The overall correlation between proprioception and motor function was significant (r = 0.267, p < 0.05), but there was heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 45%, p < 0.05). The results of the subgroup analysis showed proprioception of the axial segment in weight-bearing conditions (r = 0.443, p < 0.05) and upper limb without weight-bearing (r = 0.292, p < 0.05) had a stronger correlation with motor function than proprioception of the lower limb without weight-bearing. The proprioception measured through ipsilateral matching (r = 0.412, p < 0.05) showed a stronger correlation with motor function than through contralateral matching. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) domains of motor function, movement function (r = 0.338, p < 0.05), activity performance (r = 0.239, p < 0.05), and independence (r = 0.319, p < 0.05) showed a stronger correlation with proprioception than with other domains.Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between proprioception and motor dysfunction after stroke. The proprioception measured in the axial segment under weight-bearing conditions or measured with ipsilateral matching, and motor function, specifically in the ICF domains of movement function, activity performance, and independence showed a positive contribution to the association between proprioception and motor function. The correlation does not imply causation and might be underestimated by attributes of current tests for proprioception and motor function. Further studies are needed to clarify the cause-effect relationship.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Yue Hu ◽  
Qing-Yue Fu ◽  
Dan-Ni Fu ◽  
Xue-Long Wang ◽  
Zhi-Hong Wang ◽  

Itching is a common symptom of many skin or systemic diseases and has a negative impact on the quality of life. Zinc, one of the most important trace elements in an organism, plays an important role in the regulation of pain. Whether and how zinc regulates itching is largely unclear. Herein, we explored the role of Zn2+ in the regulation of acute and chronic itch in mice. It is found that intradermal injection (i.d.) of Zn2+ dose-dependently induced acute itch and transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) participated in Zn2+-induced acute itch in mice. Moreover, the pharmacological analysis showed the involvement of histamine, mast cells, opioid receptors, and capsaicin-sensitive C-fibers in Zn2+-induced acute itch in mice. Systemic administration of Zn2+ chelators, such as N,N,N′,N′-Tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), pyrithione, and clioquinol were able to attenuate both acute itch and dry skin-induced chronic itch in mice. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) analysis showed that the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of zinc transporters (ZIPs and ZnTs) significantly changed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) under dry skin-induced chronic itch condition in mice. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway was induced in the DRG and skin by the administration of zinc or under dry skin condition, which was inhibited by systemic administration of Zn2+ chelators. Finally, we found that the expression of GPR39 (a zinc-sensing GPCR) was significantly upregulated in the dry skin mice model and involved in the pathogenesis of chronic itch. Together, these results indicated that the TRPA1/GPR39/ERK axis mediated the zinc-induced itch and, thus, targeting zinc signaling may be a promising strategy for anti-itch therapy.

2022 ◽  
Jucier Gonçalves Júnior ◽  
Marília de Oliveira Bringel ◽  
Leonardo Rodrigues de Morais ◽  
Luiz Fernando de Castro Malinverno ◽  
Giselle Vasconcelos Liberato ◽  

Although the most common Chikungunya (do not capitalize the disease unless it is named after a proper noun such as Zika, Ebola or Carrion’s Disease) manifestations are osteoarticular, those which bring the most morbidity and mortality are neurological, where thorough mapping through studies with a methodological outline have not yet been well structured. Therefore, the objective was to review the literature to identify neurological manifestations of CHIKV. We used the Virtual Health Library (VHL) and PubMed with the following descriptors: #1 “Chikungunya” [MeSH]; #2 “neurological manifestations” [MeSH] and their equivalents in the Portuguese language, selecting literature published between July 2007 to January 2018. From the 180 studies that were found, 30 were selected. Findings were divided into two subcategories: “Chikungunya: Typical Neurological Manifestations” and “Chikungunya: Severe Neurological Manifestations”. The studies show that headaches were characterized as the most common symptom in adult patients affected by CHIKV, followed by meningeal involvement. Meningeal involvement is also a more serious clinical scenario associated with encephalitis, convulsions, polyneuropathies such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and death. CHIKV is a public health problem for many reasons including its chronic potential complications. Given the neurological symptoms, this disease is concerning in age extremes, for patients with comorbidities and for patients with more than one viral infection by arboviruses, in whom the most severe neurological manifestations are more common.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 1423-1434
Denny Satria Utama ◽  
Eriza ◽  
Priscilla Ralahayu ◽  
Erial Bahar

Background. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant tumor that grows in the nasopharyngeal area with predilection in the fossa Rossenmuller and the nasopharyngeal roof adjacent to the Eustachian tube, so one of NPC’s early symptoms is ear symptoms. Hearing loss is a common symptom found in people with NPC due to dysfunction of the Eustachian tube, a continuing middle ear disorder that can result in conductive hearing loss.This study aims to find out the relationship between primary tumor of NPC and the degree of conductive hearing loss at dr. Mohammad Hoesin Hospital Palembang. Methods. This is a cross sectional study that obtained 42 samples from the medical records at Dr. Mohammad Hoesin Hospital Palembang that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study subjects collected in total sampling have been conducted audiometry examinations at the ORLHNS clinic of Dr. Mohammad Hoesin Hospital Palembang during the period January 2019 - April 2021. Results. The proportion of hearing loss in NPC patients in this study was 30 subjects (71.4%) with the highest proportion of hearing loss complaints being 33.3%. The proportion of conductive hearing loss of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients in the study was 33 subjects (78.5%) right ear and 28 subjects (66.7%) left ear. There was a significant association between the degree of the NPC primary tumor and the incidence of conductive deafness of the left ear, but there was no significant association in the right ear. There is a significant correlation between NPC primary tumors and left ear hearing thresholds at frequencies of 500 Hz and 4000 Hz, but there is no significant association between the degree of NPC primary tumor and right ear hearing loss. Conclusions. There is significant correlation between the primary tumor of NPC and the hearing threshold of the left ear but there was no significant association in the right ear.

Dinesh Kumar Sharma ◽  
Kumaresan Gururaj ◽  
Gopal Dass ◽  
Nitika Sharma ◽  
Anil Kumar Mishra ◽  

Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitism in goats is a serious and widely distributed problem. Diarrhoea, moderate or severe, though a result of various factors involving feed, fodder, seasons and state of gut physiology of digestion, is a common symptom in goats infested with GI parasites, the nematodes and coccidia. Intensity of diarrhoea corresponds to quantum and type of parasitism. Methods: In the present study, 1451 faecal samples collected from goats of different ages ( less than 3 M, greater than 3-6 M, greater than 6-12 M and greater than 12 M) were categorized as normal, lumpy and diarrheic based on their consistency and were processed for parasitic infections. The GI parasitic load was quantified by faecal eggs/oocysts counting (FEC and FOC) per gram of faeces through the modified Mac-master technique. Identification of parasites was based on the morphology of third-stage larvae procured by coproculture of randomly selected positive samples. FEC/FOC data (strongyle and coccidian), being skewed and uneven, were log-transformed to normalize. The transformed data [loge (100+n)] was analyzed statistically and results were interpreted. Result: Means of FEC and FOC in three type of faecal samples viz. normal, lumpy and diarrheic, were significantly different. Similarly, the effect of age on FEC and FOC was significant. The interaction between animals age × faecal sample type was significant in coccidian and non-significant in strongyle infection. The results were discussed to support the hypothesis that faecal consistency was a measure of coccidian and strongyle worm load in goats and can be a basis of targeted selective treatment.

2022 ◽  
pp. 16-32
Abhishek Kumar Singh ◽  
Rakesh Kumar Jat

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack is the disease of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle (Myocardium) i.e. coronary heart disease. The area of heart muscle that has either zero flow or so little flow that it cannot sustain cardiac muscle function is said to be infracted and the overall process is called a myocardial infarction. MI are of two types; transmural and subendocardial. Mainly it is caused due to oxidative stress and atherosclerosis.Chest pain is the most common symptom of acute MI and is often described as a sensation of tightness, pressure, or squeezing. Other symptoms include diaphoresis (an excessive form of sweating), Shortness of breath (dyspnea), weakness, light-headedness, nausea, vomiting, and palpitations. The most common symptoms of MI in women include dyspnea, weakness, and fatigue, sleep disturbances. It can be treated by using  blockers, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers and nitrates.

Yu-Xiang Kuo ◽  
Tzu Hsuan Luo ◽  
Hsing-Mei Wu

Background and Objectives Granular myringitis is troublesome for otologist because uncertain etiology and often been overlooked due to vague clinical symptoms and signs. The ideal treatment is elusive. Our study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of granular myringitis and analyzing the effect of the two different strategies, including carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) and caustic agent cauterization to manage granular myringitis. Study Design: Retrospective review Subjects and Methods One hundred and thirty patients with granular myringitis receiving treatment at a single medical center from July 2009 to January 2018 were enrolled. We retrospectively reviewed the charts and surgical records. The main two different strategies to manage focal refractory granular myringitis were analyzed, including carbon dioxide laser and caustic solution. We also recorded the clinical course and determine which strategy is better. Results One hundred and thirty patients with granular myringitis were enrolled. 47/130 (36.1%) had previous otologic procedures. Frequent ototrrhea is the most common symptom (66.1%). Posterior-inferior quadrant is the most common site of involvement (58%). The successful rate of CO2 laser, caustic agent were 94.9% and 79.2%. The recurrence rate was comparable between CO2 laser and caustic agent. No major complication was found in either individual group. Conclusion: Otologic procedure may be a predisposing factor of focal chronic myringitis. Ear drops had poor efficacy compared to other treatments. It can be apply only on minor and fresh symptom cases. In this study, we suggest CO2 laser can be the first line treatment, especially for the troublesome or refractory GM cases, which had the higher successful rate and less complication comparing to caustic agent cauterization.

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