Epidemiological Effects
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2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 007-010
Author(s):  
Chahkandi Benyamin ◽  
Gheibi Mohammad ◽  
Takhtravan Amir

Cadmium is naturally present in the mineral cadmium sulfide which is a rare form of this element and the highest amount of cadmium is obtained from the extraction process of other minerals such as lead, copper and zinc. The release of this metal into the environment leads to widespread epidemiological effects. Therefore, measuring small amounts of this metal is also of particular importance. Small amount measuring methods of this metal are such as,preconcentration using solid phase extraction system using adsorbents. The main part of the preconcentration process is achieved by adsorption processes. In this study, the behavior of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms for the capacity of TMON and IMNM adsorbents in cadmium adsorption has been evaluated by Power and Rational statistical distributions. At the end of the study, the constant coefficients of the Freundlich and Langmuir models were compared in both linear and non-linear modes. The results showed; the linearization method for the Kf coefficient of the Freundlich isotherm can cause errors equal to 41.6% in TMON adsorbent and 39.3% in IMNM adsorbent. Also, in parameter b, errors of 66.66% are obtained in TMON adsorbent and 32.45% in IMNM adsorbent.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Massimo Esposito ◽  
Marcello Sartori ◽  
Emilio Terlizzi ◽  
Roberto Antenucci ◽  
Elena Braghieri ◽  
...  

Abstract This article introduces the report on the difference occurred in management of ALS patients by an italian Public Health Care Service through 15 years with-and without DTCP (Diagnostic and Therapeutic Care Pathway) during three timeframes. The article illustrates Demography, Provenance and Territorial context of the patients in charge. The formalization of the staging-based ALS DTCP appears to have increased and improved the possibility of clinical taking in charge of patients.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Gertje Eta Leony Petersen ◽  
Jaap Buntjer ◽  
Fiona Hely ◽  
Timothy Byrne ◽  
Bruce Whitelaw ◽  
...  

Recent breakthroughs in gene-editing technologies that can render individuals fully resistant to infections may offer unprecedented opportunities for controlling future epidemics. Yet, their potential for reducing disease spread are poorly understood as the necessary theoretical framework for estimating epidemiological effects arising from gene editing applications is currently lacking. Here, we develop semi-stochastic modelling approaches to investigate how the adoption of gene editing may affect infectious disease prevalence in farmed animal populations and the prospects and time-scale for disease elimination. We apply our models to the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome PRRS, one of the most persistent global livestock diseases to date. Whereas extensive control efforts have shown limited success, recent production of gene-edited pigs that are fully resistant to the PRRS virus have raised expectations for eliminating this deadly disease. Our models predict that disease elimination on a national scale would be difficult to achieve if gene editing was used as the only disease control. However, when complemented with vaccination, the introduction of 10% of genetically resistant animals in a fraction of herds could be sufficient for eliminating the disease within 3-6 years. Besides strategic distribution of genetically resistant animals, several other key determinants underpinning the epidemiological impact of gene-editing were identified.


Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 416
Author(s):  
Tintu Varghese ◽  
Shainey Alokit Khakha ◽  
Sidhartha Giri ◽  
Nayana P. Nair ◽  
Manohar Badur ◽  
...  

In April 2016, an indigenous monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotavac) was introduced to the National Immunization Program in India. Hospital-based surveillance for acute gastroenteritis was conducted in five sentinel sites from 2012 to 2020 to monitor the vaccine impact on various genotypes and the reduction in rotavirus positivity at each site. Stool samples collected from children under 5 years of age hospitalized with diarrhea were tested for group A rotavirus using a commercial enzyme immunoassay, and rotavirus strains were characterized by RT-PCR. The proportion of diarrhea hospitalizations attributable to rotavirus at the five sites declined from a range of 56–29.4% in pre-vaccine years to 34–12% in post-vaccine years. G1P[8] was the predominant strain in the pre-vaccination period, and G3P[8] was the most common in the post-vaccination period. Circulating patterns varied throughout the study period, and increased proportions of mixed genotypes were detected in the post-vaccination phase. Continuous long-term surveillance is essential to understand the diversity and immuno-epidemiological effects of rotavirus vaccination.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Roberto Cazzolla Gatti ◽  
Alena Velichevskaya

UNSTRUCTURED A national-scale study in Italy showed an incidence of cancer higher in the territories indicated as highly polluted compared to the regional average. One of them, the city of Taranto in Apulia (Italy), which is considered one of the most polluted cities in Europe, has numerous industrial activities that impact population health. We studied the epidemiological effects of a high level of pollution produced by the industrial area of Taranto in increasing the mortality rate for some specific cancer types in the city and towns of the two provinces located downwind. We analysed 10-year mortality rates for 14 major types of tumours reported among the residents of Taranto, of 6 surrounding towns, randomly placed within an imaginary cone in the main wind direction from the vertex of the industrial zone of Taranto. Our results confirm our hypothesis that the mortality rate for some specific types of cancer (namely, Hodgkin and non- Hodgkin lymphomas, leukaemia, liver and bladder tumours) are higher than the norm in the municipality of Taranto and we have evidence that other local causes may be implicated in the excess of mortality besides the potential dispersal of pollutants from the industrial area of Taranto. The proximity to the industrial area of Taranto cannot, therefore, explain alone the anomalies detected in some populations. It is likely that other site-specific sources of heavy pollution are playing a role in worsening the death toll of these towns and this must be taken into serious consideration by environmental policy-makers and local authorities.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Timo Mitze ◽  
Johannes Rode

Growing evidence on higher transmissibility of novel variants of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is raising alarm in many countries. We provide an early assessment of population-level effects from confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) on 7-day incidence rates in 401 German cities and regions. Estimates reveal that the 204 cities and regions with at least one confirmed VOC case by February 4, 2021 have, on average, a 15% higher 7-day incidence rate after VOC emergence compared to cities and regions without confirmed cases. Effects are considerably larger (40% and more) for sub-sample estimates of regions with high VOC counts. Considering time heterogeneity in the estimations further shows that VOC effects on incidence rates grow over time.


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
R. Roberto Cazzolla Gatti ◽  
Alena Velichevskaya

AbstractA national-scale study in Italy showed an incidence of cancer higher in the territories indicated as highly polluted compared to the regional average. One of them, the city of Taranto in Apulia (Italy), which is considered one of the most polluted cities in Europe, has numerous industrial activities that impact population health. We studied the epidemiological effects of a high level of pollution produced by the industrial area of Taranto in increasing the mortality rate for some specific cancer types in the city and towns of the two provinces located downwind. We analysed 10-year mortality rates for 14 major types of tumours reported among the residents of Taranto, of 6 surrounding towns, randomly placed within an imaginary cone in the main wind direction from the vertex of the industrial zone of Taranto. Our results confirm our hypothesis that the mortality rate for some specific types of cancer (namely, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, leukaemia, liver and bladder tumours) are higher than the norm in the municipality of Taranto and we have evidence that other local causes may be implicated in the excess of mortality besides the potential dispersal of pollutants from the industrial area of Taranto. The proximity to the industrial area of Taranto cannot, therefore, explain alone the anomalies detected in some populations. It is likely that other site-specific sources of heavy pollution are playing a role in worsening the death toll of these towns and this must be taken into serious consideration by environmental policy-makers and local authorities.


2020 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 576-582
Author(s):  
Carolina Guerreiro ◽  
Zulma Rúgolo

Flowering in woody bamboos is an intriguing phenomenon. Documenting a flowering event provides valuable information about bamboo life cycles. Chusquea argentina is a species endemic to the Andean Patagonian beech forests of Argentina and Chile. We here report a flowering event of C. argentina in northwestern Argentinean Patagonia. We provide a map of the area indicating flowering sites. Photographs showing details of the flowering event are presented. The epidemiological effects of the flowering of C. argentina are taken into consideration.


2020 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 1847-1851
Author(s):  
Jia Gu ◽  
Han Yan ◽  
Yaxuan Huang ◽  
Yuru Zhu ◽  
Haoxuan Sun ◽  
...  

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