Plasmodium Vivax Malaria
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Anupkumar R. Anvikar ◽  
Prajyoti Sahu ◽  
Madan M. Pradhan ◽  
Supriya Sharma ◽  
Naseem Ahmed ◽  

Plasmodium vivax malaria elimination requires radical cure with chloroquine/primaquine. However, primaquine causes hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient (G6PDd) individuals. Between February 2016 and July 2017 in Odisha State, India, a prospective, observational, active pharmacovigilance study assessed the hematologic safety of directly observed 25 mg/kg chloroquine over 3 days plus primaquine 0.25 mg/kg/day for 14 days in 100 P. vivax patients (≥ 1 year old) with hemoglobin (Hb) ≥ 7 g/dL. Pretreatment G6PDd screening was not done, but patients were advised on hemolysis signs and symptoms using a visual aid. For evaluable patients, the mean absolute change in Hb between day 0 and day 7 was −0.62 g/dL (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.93, −0.31) for males (N = 53) versus −0.24 g/dL (95%CI: −0.59, 0.10) for females (N = 45; P = 0.034). Hemoglobin declines ≥ 3 g/dL occurred in 5/99 (5.1%) patients (three males, two females); none had concurrent clinical symptoms of hemolysis. Based on G6PD qualitative testing after study completion, three had a G6PD-normal phenotype, one female was confirmed by genotyping as G6PDd heterozygous, and one male had an unknown phenotype. A G6PDd prevalence survey was conducted between August 2017 and March 2018 in the same region using qualitative G6PD testing, confirmed by genotyping. G6PDd prevalence was 12.0% (14/117) in tribal versus 3.1% (16/509) in nontribal populations, with G6PD Orissa identified in 29/30 (96.7%) of G6PDd samples. Following chloroquine/primaquine, notable Hb declines were observed in this population that were not recognized by patients based on clinical signs and symptoms.

2021 ◽  
Rhea J Longley ◽  
Matthew J Grigg ◽  
Kael Schoffer ◽  
Thomas Obadia ◽  
Stephanie Hyslop ◽  

SummarySerological exposure markers are a promising tool for surveillance and targeted interventions for Plasmodium vivax malaria. P. vivax is closely related to the zoonotic parasite P. knowlesi, which also infects humans. P. vivax and P. knowlesi are co-endemic across much of South East Asia, making it important to design P. vivax serological markers that minimise cross-reactivity in this region. Our objective was to determine the degree of IgG antibody cross-reactivity against a panel of P. vivax serological markers in samples from human participants with P. knowlesi malaria. We observed higher levels of IgG antibody reactivity against P. vivax proteins that had high levels of sequence identity with their P. knowlesi ortholog. IgG reactivity peaked at 7 days post P. knowlesi infection and was short-lived, with minimal responses detected at 1-year post-infection. Using these data, we designed a panel of 8 P. vivax proteins with low-levels of cross-reactivity with P. knowlesi. This panel was able to accurately classify recent P. vivax infections whilst reducing misclassification of recent P. knowlesi infections.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Stephen D. Woolley ◽  
Louise Marquart ◽  
John Woodford ◽  
Stephan Chalon ◽  
Joerg J. Moehrle ◽  

Abstract Background Malaria-associated anaemia, arising from symptomatic, asymptomatic and submicroscopic infections, is a significant cause of morbidity worldwide. Induced blood stage malaria volunteer infection studies (IBSM-VIS) provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the haematological response to early Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infection. Methods This study was an analysis of the haemoglobin, red cell counts, and parasitaemia data from 315 participants enrolled in IBSM-VIS between 2012 and 2019, including 269 participants inoculated with the 3D7 strain of P. falciparum (Pf3D7), 15 with an artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum strain (PfK13) and 46 with P. vivax. Factors associated with the fractional fall in haemoglobin (Hb-FF) were evaluated, and the malaria-attributable erythrocyte loss after accounting for phlebotomy-related losses was estimated. The relative contribution of parasitized erythrocytes to the malaria-attributable erythrocyte loss was also estimated. Results The median peak parasitaemia prior to treatment was 10,277 parasites/ml (IQR 3566–27,815), 71,427 parasites/ml [IQR 33,236–180,213], and 34,840 parasites/ml (IQR 13,302–77,064) in participants inoculated with Pf3D7, PfK13, and P. vivax, respectively. The median Hb-FF was 10.3% (IQR 7.8–13.3), 14.8% (IQR 11.8–15.9) and 11.7% (IQR 8.9–14.5) in those inoculated with Pf3D7, PfK13 and P. vivax, respectively, with the haemoglobin nadir occurring a median 12 (IQR 5–21), 15 (IQR 7–22), and 8 (IQR 7–15) days following inoculation. In participants inoculated with P. falciparum, recrudescence was associated with a greater Hb-FF, while in those with P. vivax, the Hb-FF was associated with a higher pre-treatment parasitaemia and later day of anti-malarial treatment. After accounting for phlebotomy-related blood losses, the estimated Hb-FF was 4.1% (IQR 3.1–5.3), 7.2% (IQR 5.8–7.8), and 4.9% (IQR 3.7–6.1) in participants inoculated with Pf3D7, PfK13, and P. vivax, respectively. Parasitized erythrocytes were estimated to account for 0.015% (IQR 0.006–0.06), 0.128% (IQR 0.068–0.616) and 0.022% (IQR 0.008–0.082) of the malaria-attributable erythrocyte loss in participants inoculated with Pf3D7, PfK13, and P. vivax, respectively. Conclusion Early experimental P. falciparum and P. vivax infection resulted in a small but significant fall in haemoglobin despite parasitaemia only just at the level of microscopic detection. Loss of parasitized erythrocytes accounted for < 0.2% of the total malaria-attributable haemoglobin loss.

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2222
Shalini Aggarwal ◽  
Weng Kung Peng ◽  
Sanjeeva Srivastava

Plasmodium vivax malaria is one of the most lethal infectious diseases, with 7 million infections annually. One of the roadblocks to global malaria elimination is the lack of highly sensitive, specific, and accurate diagnostic tools. The absence of diagnostic tools in particular has led to poor differentiation among parasite species, poor prognosis, and delayed treatment. The improvement necessary in diagnostic tools can be broadly grouped into two categories: technologies-driven and omics-driven progress over time. This article discusses the recent advancement in omics-based malaria for identifying the next generation biomarkers for a highly sensitive and specific assay with a rapid and antecedent prognosis of the disease. We summarize the state-of-the-art diagnostic technologies, the key challenges, opportunities, and emerging prospects of multi-omics-based sensors.

Konrad Siegert ◽  
Welmoed van Loon ◽  
Prabhanjan P Gai ◽  
Jessica L Rohmann ◽  
Marco Piccininni ◽  

India faces 0.5 million malaria cases annually, including half of all Plasmodium vivax malaria cases worldwide. This case–control study assessed socioeconomic determinants of urban malaria in coastal Mangaluru, Karnataka, southwestern India. Between June and December 2015, we recruited 859 malaria patients presenting at the governmental Wenlock Hospital and 2190 asymptomatic community controls. We assessed clinical, parasitological, and socioeconomic data. Among patients, p. vivax mono-infection (70.1%) predominated. Most patients were male (93%), adult (median, 27 years), had no or low-level education (70.3%), and 57.1% were daily labourers or construction workers. In controls (59.3% male; median age, 32 years; no/low-level education, 54.5%; daily labourers/construction workers, 41.3%), 4.1% showed asymptomatic Plasmodium infection. The odds of malaria was reduced among those who had completed 10th school grade (aOR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.26–0.42), lived in a building with a tiled roof (aOR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.53–0.95), and reported recent indoor residual spraying (aOR, 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01–0.04). In contrast, migrant status was a risk factor for malaria (aOR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.60–3.67). Malaria in Mangaluru is influenced by education, housing condition, and migration. Indoor residual spraying greatly contributes to reducing malaria in this community and should be promoted, especially among its marginalised members.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (10) ◽  
pp. e0009077
Gregório Guilherme Almeida ◽  
Pedro Augusto Carvalho Costa ◽  
Maísa da Silva Araujo ◽  
Gabriela Ribeiro Gomes ◽  
Alex Fiorini Carvalho ◽  

Individuals with asymptomatic infection due to Plasmodium vivax are posited to be important reservoirs of malaria transmission in endemic regions. Here we studied a cohort of P. vivax malaria patients in a suburban area in the Brazilian Amazon. Overall 1,120 individuals were screened for P. vivax infection and 108 (9.6%) had parasitemia detected by qPCR but not by microscopy. Asymptomatic individuals had higher levels of antibodies against P. vivax and similar hematological and biochemical parameters compared to uninfected controls. Blood from asymptomatic individuals with very low parasitemia transmitted P. vivax to the main local vector, Nyssorhynchus darlingi. Lower mosquito infectivity rates were observed when blood from asymptomatic individuals was used in the membrane feeding assay. While blood from symptomatic patients infected 43.4% (199/458) of the mosquitoes, blood from asymptomatic infected 2.5% (43/1,719). However, several asymptomatic individuals maintained parasitemia for several weeks indicating their potential role as an infectious reservoir. These results suggest that asymptomatic individuals are an important source of malaria parasites and Science and Technology for Vaccines granted by Conselho Nacional de may contribute to the transmission of P. vivax in low-endemicity areas of malaria.

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