freundlich isotherm
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Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 171
Chengtao Li ◽  
Deyi Kong ◽  
Xiaolong Yao ◽  
Xiaotao Ma ◽  
Chunhui Wei ◽  

Adsorbent material was prepared using distillers’ grains (DG), which is a waste product of distilleries. The DG was pre-treated with NaOH and esterification-modified with CS2, which is a commonly used anionic modifier. The structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized by FTIR, XRD, EDS, SEM, BET, and zeta potential. The related mechanism of adsorption of malachite green (MG) onto modified distiller’s grains (MDG) was studied by adsorption experiments and molecular simulation techniques. The experimental results showed that CS2 successfully modified the DG fiber, and simultaneously yielded the MDG with a uniform pore distribution. MDG had a considerable adsorption capacity of 367.39 mg/g and a maximum removal rate of 96.51%. After eight adsorption–desorption cycle experiments, the adsorption removal rate of MDG to MG dye remained at 82.6%. The adsorption process could be fitted well by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model (the correlation coefficient R2 > 0.998) and Freundlich isotherm adsorption equation (the correlation coefficient R2 > 0.972). Moreover, the adsorption of MG dye by MDG is a spontaneous, endothermic, and increased entropy process. The results of molecular simulation showed that the mechanism of MG molecules onto MDG was mainly chemical adsorption. The adsorption performance of MG onto MDG was better and more stable than DG. Molecular simulation also provided a theoretical guidance of MDG adsorption–desorption for the research on recycling of DG resources.

2022 ◽  
Sabarish Radoor ◽  
Jasila Karayil ◽  
Aswathy Jayakumar ◽  
Jyotishkumar Parameswaranpillai ◽  
Jaewoo Lee ◽  

Abstract In this study, we report polyvinyl alcohol/carboxymethyl cellulose/gelatin/ZSM-5 zeolite (PVA/CMC/GEL/ZSM-5) membrane for anionic dye (rhodamine B, Rh B) removal from aqueous solution. The prepared membrane was characterized using different techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM), universal testing machine (UTM) and water contact angle respectively. XRD, FT-IR and SEM analysis indicates successful incorporation of zeolite into PVA/CMC/GEL membrane. The improved hydrophobicity of the zeolite loaded membrane was confirmed by contact angle analysis. The Rh B removal efficiency of zeolite loaded PVA/CMC/GEL membrane was investigated through batch adsorption technique. The effect of different parameters such as initial dye concentration, zeolite dosage, contact time, temperature and pH on the adsorption was examined. Rh B dye adsorption onto the membrane followed Freundlich isotherm model. The kinetic studies revealed that Rh B dye adsorption on the membrane could be explained using pseudo-second-order model. Finally, the recyclability test revealed that the membrane exhibits good recycle efficiency and is stable after 6 recycle.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 20-24
Mohd Yunus Shukor

Biosorption is a sort of sorption technology in which the sorbent is a substance that is biologically sourced. In today's world, biosorption is seen as a simple, inexpensive, and ecologically friendly way for removing pollutants from the environment. One of the branches of bioremediation that is utilised to decrease environmental pollution in the context of minimising improper textile waste disposal is this method. The sorption isotherm of Cibacron Blue onto bean peel were analyzed using ten models—Henry, Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Freundlich, BET, Toth, Sips, Fritz-Schlunder IV, Baudu and Fritz-Schlunder V, and fitted using non-linear regression. Statistical analysis based on root-mean-square error (RMSE), adjusted coefficient of determination (adjR2), bias factor (BF), accuracy factor (AF), corrected AICc (Akaike Information Criterion), BIC and HQC showed that the Freundlich model was the best model in terms of overall best criteria. The calculated evidence ratio was 8 with an AICc probability value of 0.89 indicating that the best model was at least 8 times better than the nearest best model, which was Sips. The calculated Freundlich parameters KF (Freundlich isotherm constant) and nF (Freundlich exponent) were 5.369 (L/g) (95% confidence interval from 4.359 to 6.379) and 3.125 (95% confidence interval from 2.717 to 3.533). The Langmuir constant was utilized to calculate the maximum adsorption capacity QmL (mg/g) which gave a value of 27.83 mg/g (95% confidence interval from 23.69 to 31.98). The nonlinear regression method allows for the parameter values to be represented in the 95% confidence interval range which can better allow comparison with published results.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (3) ◽  
pp. 318-331
Asanthi Ireshika Rukshani Wickramasuriya ◽  
Ruwan Chandima Wickramasinghe Arachchige ◽  
Iresha Renuke Menike Kottegoda

Hardness in drinking water is a major problem in domestic usage. It is important to use drinking water within the tolerance limits of hardness. Clay samples obtained from two different areas in Sri Lanka were analysed, modified, and optimized with a view to suppress the hardness in drinking water. Characterization of clay was carried out using XRD (X-ray diffraction spectroscopy), FTIR (Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy), and SEM (Scanning electron microscope). Variation of the adsorption capacity of clay was analysed at different firing temperatures of the clay samples. XRD analysis revealed that both clay types are consisting of Kaolinite as the main constituent. The hardness adsorption efficiency and the retention of hardness adsorption in prolonged cycles has been observed when the clay is heated at different temperatures. In addition, the water hardness adsorption efficiency was enhanced by the cationic modification using sodium chloride. The results further reveals that the Freundlich isotherm is best fit for Ca2+ adsorption on both Biyagama and Deniyaya clay whereas that for the Mg2+ adsorption is Langmuir isotherm. The present study is useful to develop low-cost clay-based materials to minimize water hardness.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 291-300
P. P. Gorbyk ◽  
A. L. Petranovska ◽  
N. V. Kusyak ◽  
N. M. Korniichuk ◽  

One of the most widely used antitumor chemotherapeutic drugs is “Cisplatin” (active substance - cis-diaminodichloroplatinum), the side effects of which are the cumulative ototoxic, nephrotoxic and neurotoxic effects. The use of drug carrier systems for targeted delivery and adsorbents for extraction, in particular magnetite-carbon nanocomposites, will minimize unwanted toxic effects without reducing the therapeutic effect of cisplatin. For this purpose, a nanocomposite (NCs) of Fe3O4/Al2O3/С with a carbon surface was synthesized, where a layer of alumina protects magnetite during the pyrolysis of carbohydrates. The synthesized samples were characterized by TEM, XRD, mass spectrometry methods, magnetic properties and specific surface area were studied. It has been found that the used heat treatment mode (T = 500 °С, argon medium) is sufficient for complete carbonization of sucrose and preserves the phase of magnetite which does not lead to deterioration of magnetic characteristics. The results of TEM studies and magnetic measurements indicate the formation of the Fe3O4/Al2O3/С nanocomposite of the core-shell type. The adsorption of Cisplatin on the surface of NCs Fe3O4/Al2O3/С was performed and the adsorption process dependent on the contact time, pH of the solution and cisplatin concentration was studied. The experimental results of kinetic studies were analyzed for compliance with the theoretical models of Boyd and Morris-Weber, models of pseudo-first and pseudo-second orders. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used to model adsorption processes. The limiting factor of adsorption is the external diffusion mass transfer processes, which correlates with the calculated parameters of the pseudo-first-order model (r2 = 0.985). The correlation of theoretical and practically obtained values of adsorption capacity indicates the possibility of using the Freundlich model to describe the adsorption of Cisplatin on the surface of Fe3O4/Al2O3/C.

2021 ◽  
pp. 152808372110639
Fu Li ◽  
Pengfei Fei ◽  
Yongchun Dong ◽  
Man Zhang ◽  
Yu Feng ◽  

This present work describes the competitive coordination of iron (III) and copper (II) ions with amidoximated polyacrylonitrile nanofiber and the catalytic performance of the resulting complex (Fe-Cu-AO- n-PAN). The coordination results showed that the increase of the initial concentration of metal ions was beneficial to the increase of the coordination amount. There were both competition and synergistic effects between the two metal ions. But AO- n-PAN was more inclined to coordinate with Fe3+ ions. The promotion effect of Cu2+ ions on iron coordination due to weak positive electric property and small ion radius increased with its initial concentration in the solution. The Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model among of four selected isotherm models for binary system showed the best fit to the co-coordination reaction between AO- n-PAN and Fe3+-Cu2+ binary solution. Fe-Cu-AO- n-PAN as heterogeneous Fenton catalyst displayed improved catalytic performance than mono-metal complexes due to its better dye adsorption and the synergistic effect between Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions during degradation process, and both the alkali-resistant and the reusability of it were improved at the same time.

Gels ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 23
Gaurav Sharma ◽  
Amit Kumar ◽  
Ayman A. Ghfar ◽  
Alberto García-Peñas ◽  
Mu. Naushad ◽  

The present research demonstrates the facile fabrication of xanthan gum-cl-poly(acrylamide-co-alginic acid) (XG-cl-poly(AAm-co-AA)) hydrogel by employing microwave-assisted copolymerization. Simultaneous copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) and alginic acid (AA) onto xanthan gum (XG) was carried out. Different samples were fabricated by changing the concentrations of AAm and AA. A sample with maximum swelling percentage was chosen for adsorption experiments. The structural and functional characteristics of synthesized hydrogel were elucidated using diverse characterization tools. Adsorption performance of XG-cl-poly(AAm-co-AA) hydrogel was investigated for the removal of noxious cadmium (Cd(II)) ions using batch adsorption from the aqueous system, various reaction parameters optimized include pH, contact time, temperature, and concentration of Cd(II) ions and temperature. The maximum adsorption was achieved at optimal pH 7, contact time 180 min, temperature 35 °C and cadmium ion centration of 10 mg·L−1. The XG-cl-poly(AAm-co-AA) hydrogel unveiled a very high adsorption potential, and its adsorption capacities considered based on the Langmuir isotherm for Cd(II) ions was 125 mg·g−1 at 35 °C. The Cd(II) ions adsorption data fitted nicely to the Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-first-order model. The reusability investigation demonstrated that hydrogel retained its adsorption capacity even after several uses without significant loss.

Teshale Adane ◽  
Amare Tiruneh Adugna ◽  
Esayas Alemayehu

Abstract Adsorption offers efficient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method for the treatment of dye-laden wastewater. This work presents, reactive red 198 (RR198) removal by adsorption using bentonite clay (BC) blended with sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The adsorbent's surface morphologies, crystalline phase structures, functional groups, and specific surface before and after adsorption were examined using SEM, XRD, FTIR, and BET respectively. Central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize independent and dependent variable values. The optimal parameters for RR198 removal using the blended adsorbent were 107 minutes contact time, 0.934 g/L adsorbent dose, and 15 mg/L initial dye concentration, and 85.2% RR198 removal efficiency was achieved. The sorption isotherms and kinetics were evaluated using various existing models. The Freundlich isotherm model (R2 = 0.95) and the pseudo-second-order equation best described the adsorption parameters and the RR198 adsorption kinetic mechanism, respectively. Desorption and reusability experiments in batch study confirmed that BC blended with SCBA can be used multiple times for dye removal from wastewater.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 39
Stefan Bucur ◽  
Aurel Diacon ◽  
Ionel Mangalagiu ◽  
Alexandra Mocanu ◽  
Florica Rizea ◽  

This study presents the synthesis of silica particles bearing two beta-cyclodextrin (BCD) (beta-cyclodextrin-BCD-OH and diamino butane monosubstituted beta-cyclodextrin-BCD-NH2). The successful synthesis of the BCD-modified silica was confirmed by FT-IR and TGA. Using contact angle measurements, BET analysis and SEM characterization, a possible formation mechanism for the generation of silica particles bearing BCD derivatives on their surface was highlighted. The obtained modified silica displayed the capacity to remove bisphenol A (BPA) from wastewater due to the presence of the BCD moieties on the surface of the silica. The kinetic analysis showed that the adsorption reached equilibrium after 180 min for both materials with qe values of 107 mg BPA/g for SiO2-BCD-OH and 112 mg BPA/g for SiO2-BCD-NH2. The process followed Ho’s pseudo-second-order adsorption model sustaining the presence of adsorption sites with different activities. The fitting of the Freundlich isotherm model on the experimental results was also evaluated, confirming the BCD influence on the materials’ adsorption properties.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Mahmoud Nouri-Mashiran ◽  
Lobat Taghavi ◽  
Ebrahim Fataei ◽  
Gholamreza Ebrahimzadeh-Rajaei ◽  
Mahdi Ramezani

In the present work, the extract of a paper-flower species called Bougainvillea spectabilis was used to green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). The synthesized ZnO NPs was confirmed by XRD, SEM, TEM, EDS, and FTIR techniques. Then, the ability of ZnO NPs to remove 2,4-dinitrophenol from aqueous solutions was investigated using photocatalytic and sonocatalytic processes. All experiments were carried out in a batch system and the effects of pH, NPs dosage, concentration, and contact time were evaluated. The findings of this study showed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model could well describe the removal of 2,4-dinitrophenol by ZnO NPs. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and BE-T isotherm models were also assessed in a dark condition. The Freundlich isotherm model was able to provide the best fit with the experimental data. Examination of the results showed that the degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol at the presence of ultraviolet (UV) and ultrasonic (US) waves was able to increase the removal efficiency to about twice as much as removal by adsorption alone. Also, The obtained results showed that the maximum removal of 2,4-dinitrophenol under photocatalytic and sonocatalytic conditions occurred at the presence of 25 mg of NPs, solution pH of 4, and 2,4-dinitrophenol concentration of 20 ppm. The best rates of photocatalytic and sonocatalytic degradation under the optimal conditions were 84.42% and 77.13% during 60 min, respectively. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol by ZnO NPs is a spontaneous and endothermic process in the direction of increasing entropy. The zinc oxide NPs have better performance in the removal of 2,4-dinitrophenol at the presence of UV and US waves.

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