Capacity Factor
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JURNAL ELTEK ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (2) ◽  
pp. 96
Author(s):  
Priya Surya ◽  
Mochammad Junus

Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Surya (PLTS) dapat diaplikasikan mulai skala kecil sampai skala besar, itu merupakan keunggulan teknologi ini. Dalam skala kecil, pemanfaatan energi surya dapat diaplikasikan di setiap atap rumah untuk memenuhi kebutuhan listrik tiap konsumen residential / rumah tangga. Untuk kebutuhan ini, sistem PLTS dilakukan secara on – grid yaitu terhubung dengan jaringan yang sudah tersedia yaitu jaringan penyedia layanan listrik seperti PLN. Pada penelitian ini, objek penelitian adalah Gedung X pada Politeknik Negeri Malang, dimana kebutuhan bebannya sebesar 12,5 kW dan kebutuhan energi harian 64 kWh. Menggunakan aplikasi HOMER PRO didapatkan untuk sistem dengan skema PV, Baterai, Grid PLN, dan konverter, maka Skematik yang diusulkan pada sistem PLTS adalah menggunakan solar panel dengan total daya terpasang sebesar 11 kWp, dan ditambah dengan baterai sebesar 1500 Ah, konverter daya sebesar 6 kW , dan grid PLN tetap sebagai suplai utama. Untuk bisa mengurangi  tagihan listrik, dilakukanlah Renewable Fraction (RF) sebesar 58,5 %, sehingga didapatkan produksi harian untuk solar panel sebesar 45,6 kWh, yaitu sebesar 68 % kebutuhan harian dengan capacity factor sebesar 17,3 %. Solar panel yang digunakan merk ICASOLAR dengan kapasitas 250 Wp membutuhkan sebanyak 44 panel dengan total luasan yang diperlukan sebesar 57 m2 pada atap gedung. Secara ekonomis didapatkan bahwa Net Present Cost pada sistem ini adalah sebesar Rp. 183.000.000,- dan nilai Cost of Energy sebesar Rp. 484,58,- / kWh.   PLTS can be applied from small to large scale, that is the advantage of this technology. On a small scale, the use of solar energy can be applied on every roof of the house to meet the electricity needs of each residential / household consumer. For this need, the PLTS system is carried out on an on-grid basis, which is connected to an already available network, namely a network of electricity service providers such as PLN. In this study, the object of research is Building X at the State Polytechnic of Malang, where the load requirement is 12.5 kW and the daily energy requirement is 64 kWh. Using the HOMER PRO application obtained for systems with PV schemes, Batteries, PLN Grids, and converters, the proposed Schematic for the PLTS system is to use solar panels with a total installed power of 11 kWp, and coupled with a 1500 Ah battery, a power converter of 6 kW , and the PLN grid remains as the main supply. To be able to reduce electricity bills, Renewable Fraction (RF) is carried out by 58.5%, so that the daily production for solar panels is 45.6 kWh, which is 68% of daily needs with a capacity factor of 17.3%. The solar panels used by the ICASOLAR brand with a capacity of 250 Wp require 44 panels with a total required area of ​​57 m2 on the roof of the building. Economically, it is found that the Net Present Cost in this system is Rp. 183,000,000,- and Cost of Energy amount Rp. 484,58,- / kWh.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zeeshan Fareed ◽  
Sultan Salem ◽  
Tomiwa Sunday Adebayo ◽  
Ugur Korkut Pata ◽  
Farrukh Shahzad

Sustainable development and reducing environmental pressure are major issues that concern developed as well as developing countries. Although researchers widely use carbon dioxide emissions and ecological footprint within the scope of environmental degradation, a more comprehensive ecological indicator is needed to assess environmental sustainability. In this context, the load capacity factor enables a comprehensive environmental sustainability assessment through the simultaneous analysis of biocapacity and ecological footprint. However, there are few studies analyzing the determinants of load capacity factor and this study aims to fill this gap for Indonesia. Using the recently developed Fourier quantile causality test, this study investigates the impact of income, export diversification, non-renewable and renewable energy consumption on the load capacity factor for Indonesia during 1965Q1–2014Q4. The results show unidirectional causality from non-renewable energy consumption to the load capacity factor at all quantiles, while income, export diversification, and renewable energy are the causes of environmental quality at middle and higher quantiles (within 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9). Most importantly, renewable energy and export diversification increase the load capacity factor and thus support environmental quality. In contrast, an increase in income and consumption of non-renewable energy reduces the load capacity factor. These results highlight the importance of renewable energy and export diversification for the sustainable development of Indonesia.


Author(s):  
FRANSISCO DANANG WIJAYA ◽  
I WAYAN ADIYASA ◽  
EKRAR WINATA

ABSTRAKRasio elektrifikasi di Indonesia belum mencapai 100%, penyebabnya antara lain masalah lokasi di daerah terpencil atau kepulauan dan mahalnya biaya operasi PLTD. Salah satu solusi adalah membangkitkan listrik berbasis energi terbarukan setempat. Tahap awal pemanfaatan energi terbarukan perlu dihitung faktor kapasitas (CF). Tujuan penelitian ini menganalisis CF untuk PLTB dengan metode perhitungan analitik berbasis potensi energi angin, spesifikasi teknologi PLTB dan PLTD, profil beban dan energi listrik yang dapat diproduksi untuk pengembangan sistem hibrida dengan mengambil kasus di Elat Pulau Serau Maluku. Hasil perhitungan CF untuk 5 teknologi PLTB yang berbeda dengan variasi ketinggian di Elat telah diverifikasi dengan simulasi menggunakan perangkat lunak HOMER dengan nilai rerata galat -0,030. Semakin tinggi PLTB, nilai CF semakin besar dengan konstanta 0,0030.Kata kunci: elektrifikasi, faktor kapasitas, PLTB, PLTD, sistem hibrida ABSTRACTThe electrification ratio in Indonesia has not reached 100%, the causes include problems with the location in remote areas or islands and the high operating costs of diesel power plant (DPP). One solution is to generate electricity based on local renewable energy. The initial stage of utilizing renewable energy needs to calculate the capacity factor (CF). The purpose of this research is to analyze CF for wind turbine generator (WTG) with analytical calculation methods based on wind energy potential, technology specifications of WTG and DPP, load profiles and electrical energy that can be produced for hybrid system development by taking the case in Elat Serau Island, Maluku. The results of CF calculations for 5 different WTG technologies with altitude variations in Elat have been verified by simulation using HOMER software with a mean error value of -0.030. The higher the WTG, the greater the CF value with a constant of 0.0030.Keywords: electrification, capacity factor, diesel power plant, wind turbine generator, hybrid system


2021 ◽  
pp. 2813-2823
Author(s):  
Firas A. Hadi ◽  
Zaid F. Makki ◽  
Rafa A. Al-Baldawi

The main objective of this paper is present a novel method to choice a certain wind turbine for a specific site by using normalized power and capacity factor curves. The site matching is based on identifying the optimum turbine rotation speed parameters from turbine performance index (TPI) curve, which is obtained from the higher values of normalized power and capacity factor curves. Wind Turbine Performance Index a new ranking parameter, is defined to optimally match turbines to wind site. The relations (plots) of normalized power, capacity factor, and turbine performance index versus normalized rated wind speed are drawn for a known value of Weibull shape parameter of a site, thus a superior method is used for Weibull parameters estimation which is called Equivalent Energy Method (EEM).


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (17) ◽  
pp. 3422
Author(s):  
Chang Ki Kim ◽  
Hyun-Goo Kim ◽  
Yong-Heack Kang ◽  
Chang-Yeol Yun ◽  
Boyoung Kim ◽  
...  

The Korea Institute of Energy Research builds Korean solar irradiance datasets, using gridded solar insolation estimates derived using the University of Arizona solar irradiance based on Satellite–Korea Institute of Energy Research (UASIBS–KIER) model, with the incorporation of geostationary satellites over the Korean Peninsula, from 1996 to 2019. During the investigation period, the monthly mean of daily total irradiance was in a good agreement with the in situ measurements at 18 ground stations; the mean absolute error is also normalized to 9.4%. It is observed that the irradiance estimates in the datasets have been gradually increasing at a rate of 0.019 kWh m−2 d−1 per year. The monthly variation in solar irradiance indicates that the meteorological conditions in the spring season dominate the annual solar insolation. In addition, the local distribution of solar irradiance is primarily affected by the geographical environment; higher solar insolation is observed in the southern part of Korea, but lower solar insolation is observed in the mountainous range in Korea. The annual capacity factor is the secondary output from the Korean solar irradiance datasets. The reliability of the estimate of this factor is proven by the high correlation coefficient of 0.912. Thus, in accordance with the results from the spatial distribution of solar irradiance, the southern part of Korea is an appropriate region for establishing solar power plants exhibiting a higher annual capacity factor than the other regions.


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