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2022 ◽  
Tamrat Tesfaye

Abstract The Textile industry is an important contributor to the GDP of countries worldwide. Both natural and synthetic fibers are the main raw materials for this sector. Environmental concerns, depletion of non-renewable resources, the high price of oil and limited oil reserves with consumer demand is driving research into cheap, biodegradable, sustainable, renewable and abundantly available green materials. Natural fibers are of the good substitute sources for swapping synthetic fibers and reinforcing polymer matrices because of their contributions in maintaining of ecology, nature of disposal, low energy requirement for processing and sustainability. The current research emphases on evaluating and determining the best extraction methods to process and treat cyperus Dichrostachus A.Rich plant in order to make the fiber suitable for variety of applications. Cyperus Dichrostachus A.Rich plant was treated with two conditions (cold and warm conditions) using statistically planned tests. Process conditions were optimised using central composite design methodology with the experimental design. Under optimised conditions, the strength and fiber yield of CDA fibers were significantly compared. The strength and fiber yield of the fiber was at maximized with optimized conditions and use for valorisation applications.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261946
Thiago Henrique Annibale Vendramini ◽  
Rodrigo Fernando Gomes Olivindo ◽  
Rafael Vessecchi Amorim Zafalon ◽  
Mariana Fragoso Rentas ◽  
Lucca Denuci Zanini ◽  

Obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in dogs and it is associated with many comorbidities. Some obesity risk factors have already been established, however, the evaluation of the effect of different individual variables on weight loss induced by calorie restriction, although very important, is still poorly explored. The weight loss protocol can be updated and improved by more precise and adjusted equations throughout the weight loss program in the clinical routine practice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze weight loss program dynamics in groups according to reproductive status, age, body size, and breed, as well as to define more accurately the amount of calories per target metabolic weight throughout the program. Data of 1,053 cases, presented between 2012 and 2019 at the Veterinary Hospital of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the University of São Paulo (FMVZ-USP) were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 77 obese dogs (body condition scores 8/9 or 9/9) of different ages, breeds, sizes, and reproductive status were selected. These dogs did not have any concomitant illnesses and successfully completed the weight loss program. Statistical analysis was performed and values of p≤0.05 were considered significant. The proposed weight loss program was based on an energy restriction protocol where daily energy intake (in kcal) was estimated as 70 kcal × target weight0.75. The target weight (TW) was defined as 80% of the animal’s current weight. The average calorie intake for weight loss (calories x target weight0.75) was lower for spayed females (62.36), differing from intact males (66.14) and neutered males (65.41), while intact females (63.66) showed intermediate values without differing between groups (p = 0.015). There were no differences between weight loss calories according to age (p = 0.473) or body size (p = 0.084), allowing the use of the same mathematical equation for intact and neutered dogs; for dogs older than 1 year and of different body sizes. Regarding the breed, the average calorie intake was lower (p = 0.002) in mixed breed dogs (61.54xTW0.75) when compared to obesity-prone purebred dogs (64.17xTW0.75) and other purebreds (65.27xTW0.75). It was concluded that spayed females and mixed breed dogs have greater difficulty in losing weight, that is, they need fewer calories per metabolic body weight for the weight loss program to succeed. A more accurate equation for energy requirement for weight loss can improve chances of success, therefore improving compliance and helping clinical management of obesity in dogs.

2022 ◽  
Abir Chakravorty

Development of desalination technologies has been identified as vital to fulfilling future water demand. Directional solvent extraction is one of the promising membrane-less seawater desalination method. Membrane based desalination technologies incur a higher cost and are subjected to fouling after certain period of time of operation and needs regular maintenance and monitoring. It is believed that, overcoming these drawbacks is possible by working in the millimeter scale through the incorporation of pulsatile flow and air damper. This work presents a theoretical approach designed for a certain nominal length of an air damper, placed on the top of the extraction column, with the flow in the desalination unit being semi pulsatile combined with secondary pulsation generated due to air suspension during solvent extraction applied for desalination operation. Henceforth a theoretical approach based on the above stated parameters, it is found theoretically that with increase in flow pulsation amplitude and frequency the extracted salt concentration in solvent increases. The application of infra red radiation in preheating section with the help of a infrared heating device is the crucial part of DSE process, cooling is planned to achieve via a heat exchanger or atmospheric cooling. The total exergy and energy calculations will be conducted to see the energy requirement for the process. It is planned to calculate the salt separation efficiency of sea water (on the basis of WHO guidelines) to fresh water, alongwith flow rate and processing time.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 222
Chiou Yi Ho ◽  
Zuriati Ibrahim ◽  
Zalina Abu Zaid ◽  
Zulfitri Azuan Mat Daud ◽  
Nor Baizura Mohd Yusop ◽  

Sufficient postoperative dietary intake is crucial for ensuring a better surgical outcome. This study aimed to investigate the postoperative dietary intake achievement and predictors of postoperative dietary intake among gynecologic cancer patients. A total of 118 participants were included in this secondary analysis. Postoperative dietary data was pooled and re-classified into early postoperative dietary intake achievement (EDIA) (daily energy intake (DEI) ≥ 75% from the estimated energy requirement (EER)) and delay dietary intake achievement (DDIA) (DEI < 75% EER) There was a significant difference in postoperative changes in weight (p = 0.002), muscle mass (p = 0.018), and handgrip strength (p = 0.010) between the groups. Postoperative daily energy and protein intake in the EDIA was significantly greater than DDIA from operation day to discharged (p = 0.000 and p = 0.036). Four significant independent postoperative dietary intake predictors were found: preoperative whey protein-infused carbohydrate loading (p = 0.000), postoperative nausea vomiting (p = 0.001), age (p = 0.010), and time to tolerate clear fluid (p = 0.016). The multilinear regression model significantly predicted postoperative dietary intake, F (4, 116) = 68.013, p = 0.000, adj. R2 = 0.698. With the four predictors’ recognition, the integration of a more specific and comprehensive dietitian-led supportive care with individualized nutrition intervention ought to be considered to promote functional recovery.

Hwapyung Jung ◽  
Arun Karmakar ◽  
Arindam Adhikari ◽  
Rajkumar Patel ◽  
Subrata Kundu

Continuous depletion of fossil fuels insisting us to find out suitable alternative energy sources to fulfill the global energy requirement. While searching it has been found that the ‘Hydrogen’ with...

2021 ◽  
Tamrate Tesfaye(D.r)

Abstract Natural fibers are of the good substitute sources for swapping synthetic fibers and reinforcing polymer matrices because of their contributions in maintaining of ecology, low energy requirement for processing and sustainability. The aim of this study is to characterize new fiber from Cyperus Dichrostachus A.Rich (CDA) plant. The CDA plant is a perennial non woody grass found in Ethiopian high lands and river basins. The fiber from this plant has good chemical composition of Cellulose (60.27%), hemicellulose (22.72%), lignin (16.59%) contents. It is light fiber having a density of 1010kg/m3 and good tenacity behaviour of 105.76cN/Tex with low elongation of 4.88%. The thermal stability of Cyperus Dicrostachys A,Rich fiber (CDAF) was studied using TGA and DTG analysis and revealed that the cellulose degraded at a temperature of 377.1°C. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed that CDAF is rich in cellulose content. Furthermore, the properties of CDAF ensured that it can play a vital role as new reinforcement material and best alternative in bio composite industries. This will give competitive advantages when evaluated with other natural fibers reveals that there are significant potential benefits in implementation of “cleaner production” in textile material production industries. Specifically, replacement of synthetic fiber source with renewable biomass will reduce the environmental impact of these fibers. The future study will entail on investigating the possible valorization route especially in paper board, composite reinforcement and bio composite applications.

Anjali Garg

The current situation of fast depleting non-renewable resources and excessive damage done to mother earth due to severe mechanization and industrialization has resulted in alarming rate of pollutions. The one-word answer for it is that we should start harnessing renewable resources of energy. Tapping sun’s energy is a wonderful and apt answer to the current situation of energy requirement. World over this technology is worked upon to make use of sun’s energy easy to be converted into usable energy form i.e. electricity. The research work being carried on in varied fields however to mention one such aspect of solar panels is irradiance -receiving and capturing powers. Along with the irradiance, the area of a panel which is exposed to sun, the daytime and location are some of the factors affecting the amount of power generated using solar power as generating source. From research point of view, to analyze the effect of variation of these parameters, it is difficult to get the analysis data using solar panels and hence now a day’s emulator is preferred and used for research purposes. This paper focuses on the basics of emulator, its structure, functioning, effect of various parameter variations on the analysis of the generated power and other related benefits using emulator. The paper also presents the effect of partial shading on the maximum power generated and the efficiency hence obtained. The performance analysis is done on an Experimental set up fabricated in Research lab.

Vladimir Sidorov ◽  
Elena Badina ◽  
Elena Detina

In this paper the problem of numerical simulation of composite bending elements dynamic considering internal (material) damping. For this purpose the nonlocal in time damping model, called damping with memory, is proposed as an alternative to the classic local Kelvin-Voigt model. Damping with memory makes damping forces not only dependent on the instant value of the strain rate, but also on the previous history of the vibration process. Since finite element analysis is the most common method of structural analysis, the nonlocal damping model is integrated into FEA algorithm. The FEA dynamic equilibrium equation is solved using the explicit scheme. The damping matrix was developed using the stationary full energy requirement. One-dimensional nonlocal in time model was implemented in MATLAB software package. The results of three-dimensional numerical simulation of the composite beam vibration obtained in SIMULIA Abaqus were used for model calibration. The obtained results were compared to the results based on classic Kelvin-Voight damping model.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 46
Seshasai Srinivasan

A three-stage solidification model for food droplets has been implemented in a computational fluid dynamics code. It comprises of an initial cooling stage that is based on the principles of convective heat transfer. This is followed by the solidification period that is initiated once the droplet cools to a phase change temperature. Finally, when the droplet is completely solidified, the tempering phase begins where the droplet cools to the temperature of the ambient air. The model has been validated with respect to the experimental data for cocoa butter. Additional simulations were made in which the crystallization behavior of the cocoa butter droplets in relation to the droplet size, ambient air temperature and the relative drop-gas velocity was investigated. It was found that the crystallization time is exponentially related to the droplet size. Further, it increased with the ambient temperature, but decreased with the relative drop-gas velocity. Overall, the results suggest operating at the extreme values of the process parameters, requiring high amount of energy, to minimize the crystallization time. It was concluded that there is a need for optimizing the operating conditions of the powder production process to minimize the energy requirement of the system while maintaining a reasonable crystallization time.

2021 ◽  

<p>This study evaluates the pyrolysis of sewage sludge until 960 °C using heating rates between 3 K/min and 12 K/min in a macro TG/EGA. Mass and energy balances and kinetic parameters are determined. Thermal decomposition is divided into a low temperature zone (until 550 °C to 590 °C), for decomposition of organic matter, and a high temperature zone, for decomposition of inorganic matter and secondary reactions of the residual organic matter. In dry basis at 570 °C solid, liquid and gaseous products amount to 69.2 wt.-%, 29.2 wt.-% and 1.6 wt.-%, respectively. An increment in the final temperature to 960 °C causes a successive decrease of the solid residue to 56.9 wt.-%. The solid product contains more than 80 wt.-% mineral matter with high amounts of valuable elements, such as Ca and P. An energy requirement of 2.18 MJ/kg of dry sewage sludge is calculated for the pyrolysis until 570 °C. At this temperature, 58.5 % of the energy entering the process is concentrated in the liquid product and 40.0 % in the solid. A suitable set of kinetic parameters is determined through a formal independent parallel reactions model with six-pseudo components, using a combination of isoconversional and fitting methods.</p>

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