Minimal Residual
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Alessandro Gozzetti ◽  
Monica Bocchia

: Minimal residual disease (MRD) detection represents a great advancement in multiple myeloma. New drugs are now available that increase depth of response. The International Myeloma Working Group recommends the use of next-generation flow cytometry (NGF) or next-generation sequencing (NGS) to search for MRD in clinical trials. Best sensitivity thresholds have to be confirmed, as well as timing to detect it. MRD has proven as the best prognosticator in many trials and promises to enter also in clinical practice to guide future therapy.

Meera Mohan ◽  
Samantha Kendrick ◽  
Aniko Szabo ◽  
Naveen K Yarlagadda ◽  
Dinesh Atwal ◽  

Multiple myeloma (MM) patients frequently attain a bone marrow (BM) minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity status in response to treatment. We identified 568 patients who achieved BM MRD negativity following autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and maintenance combination therapy with an immunomodulatory agent and a proteasome inhibitor. BM MRD was evaluated by next generation flow cytometry (sensitivity of 10-5 cells) at 3 to 6 months intervals. With a median follow up of 9.9 years from diagnosis (range, 0.4 - 30.9), 61% of patients maintained MRD negativity, while 39% experienced MRD conversion at a median of 6.3 years (range, 1.4 - 25). The highest risk of MRD conversion occurred within the first 5 years after treatment and was observed more often in patients with abnormal metaphase cytogenetic abnormalities (95%vs. 84%; P = 0.001). MRD conversion was associated with a high risk of relapse and preceded it by a median of 1.0 year (range, 0 - 4.9). However, 27% of MRD conversion positive patients had not yet experienced a clinical relapse with a median follow-up of 9.3 years (range, 2.2 - 21.2). Landmark analyses using time from ASCT revealed patients with MRD conversion during the first 3 years had an inferior overall and progression-free survival compared to patients with sustained MRD negativity. MRD conversion correctly predicted relapse in 70%, demonstrating the utility of serial BM MRD assessment to complement standard laboratory and imaging to make informed salvage therapy decisions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Bin Qiu ◽  
Wei Guo ◽  
Fan Zhang ◽  
Fang Lv ◽  
Ying Ji ◽  

AbstractAccurately evaluating minimal residual disease (MRD) could facilitate early intervention and personalized adjuvant therapies. Here, using ultradeep targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS), we evaluate the clinical utility of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) for dynamic recurrence risk and adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) benefit prediction in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Both postsurgical and post-ACT ctDNA positivity are significantly associated with worse recurrence-free survival. In stage II-III patients, the postsurgical ctDNA positive group benefit from ACT, while ctDNA negative patients have a low risk of relapse regardless of whether or not ACT is administered. During disease surveillance, ctDNA positivity precedes radiological recurrence by a median of 88 days. Using joint modeling of longitudinal ctDNA analysis and time-to-recurrence, we accurately predict patients’ postsurgical 12-month and 15-month recurrence status. Our findings reveal longitudinal ctDNA analysis as a promising tool to detect MRD in NSCLC, and we show pioneering work of using postsurgical ctDNA status to guide ACT and applying joint modeling to dynamically predict recurrence risk, although the results need to be further confirmed in future studies.

Hemato ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 680-691
Monique C. Minnema ◽  
Rimke Oostvogels ◽  
Reinier Raymakers ◽  
Margot Jak

Although there are similarities in the treatment paradigms between AL amyloidosis and multiple myeloma, there are also fundamental differences. A similarity is of course the use of anti-plasma cell drugs in both diseases; however, the most serious mistake a hemato-oncologist can make is to use the same treatment schedule in dosing and frequency in AL amyloidosis patients as in multiple myeloma patients. AL amyloidosis patients with >10% bone marrow plasma cell infiltration in particular are at risk of receiving a more intensive treatment than they can tolerate. This difference in dosing and frequency is true for many anti-clonal drugs, but it is most apparent in the use of high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation. While in multiple myeloma in the age group of ≤70 years, more than 80% of patients are fit enough to receive this intensive treatment, this is the case in less than 20% of AL amyloidosis patients. A similarity is the alignment in the goal of treatment. Although in AL amyloidosis has long been recognized that the goal should be complete hematological remission, this has become more apparent in multiple myeloma in recent years. A common goal in the coming years will be to evaluate the role of minimal residual disease to improve survival in both diseases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Yan Peng ◽  
Wuxuan Mei ◽  
Kaidong Ma ◽  
Changchun Zeng

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragment in the bloodstream that originates from malignant tumors or circulating tumor cells. Recently, ctDNA has emerged as a promising non-invasive biomarker in clinical oncology. Analysis of ctDNA opens up new avenues for individualized cancer diagnosis and therapy in various types of tumors. Evidence suggests that minimum residual disease (MRD) is closely associated with disease recurrence, thus identifying specific genetic and molecular alterations as novel MRD detection targets using ctDNA has been a research focus. MRD is considered a promising prognostic marker to identify individuals at increased risk of recurrence and who may benefit from treatment. This review summarizes the current knowledge of ctDNA and MRD in solid tumors, focusing on the potential clinical applications and challenges. We describe the current state of ctDNA detection methods and the milestones of ctDNA development and discuss how ctDNA analysis may be an alternative for tissue biopsy. Additionally, we evaluate the clinical utility of ctDNA analysis in solid tumors, such as recurrence risk assessment, monitoring response, and resistance mechanism analysis. MRD detection aids in assessing treatment response, patient prognosis, and risk of recurrence. Moreover, this review highlights current advancements in utilizing ctDNA to monitor the MRD of solid tumors such as lung cancer, breast cancer, and colon cancer. Overall, the clinical application of ctDNA-based MRD detection can assist clinical decision-making and improve patient outcomes in malignant tumors.

Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Matthew S. Davids ◽  
Kerry A. Rogers ◽  
Svitlana Tyekucheva ◽  
Zixu Wang ◽  
Samantha Pazienza ◽  

Richter's Syndrome (RS) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is typically chemoresistant, with a poor prognosis. We hypothesized that the oral Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax could sensitize RS to chemoimmunotherapy and improve outcomes. We conducted a single-arm, investigator-sponsored, phase 2 trial of venetoclax plus dose-adjusted rituximab, etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin (VR-EPOCH) to determine the rate of complete response (CR). Patients received R-EPOCH for 1 cycle, then after count recovery, accelerated daily venetoclax ramp-up to 400 mg, then VR-EPOCH for up to 5 more 21-day cycles. Responders received venetoclax maintenance or cellular therapy off-study. Twenty-six patients were treated, and 13 of 26 (50%) achieved CR, with 11 achieving undetectable bone marrow minimal residual disease for CLL. Three additional patients achieved partial response (overall response rate 62%). Median progression-free survival was 10.1 months, and median overall survival was 19.6 months. Hematologic toxicity included grade ≥3 neutropenia (65%) and thrombocytopenia (50%), with febrile neutropenia in 38%. No patients experienced tumor lysis syndrome with daily venetoclax ramp-up. VR-EPOCH is active in RS, with deeper, more durable responses than historical regimens. Toxicities from intensive chemoimmunotherapy and venetoclax were observed. Our data suggest that studies comparing venetoclax with chemoimmunotherapy to chemoimmunotherapy alone are warranted. (Funded by Genentech/AbbVie; number, NCT03054896).

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