t cell therapy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 70 (2) ◽  
pp. 103331
David Beauvais ◽  
Adeline Cozzani ◽  
Anne-Sophie Blaise ◽  
Anne-Sophie Moreau ◽  
Pauline Varlet ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Luyao Wang ◽  
Yurong Chen ◽  
Xinrui Liu ◽  
Ziyi Li ◽  
Xiangpeng Dai

Cancer is one of the main causes of disease-related deaths in the world. Although cancer treatment strategies have been improved in recent years, the survival time of cancer patients is still far from satisfied. Cancer immunotherapy, such as Oncolytic virotherapy, Immune checkpoints inhibition, Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy, Chimeric antigen receptor natural killer (CAR-NK) cell therapy and macrophages genomic modification, has emerged as an effective therapeutic strategy for different kinds of cancer. However, many patients do not respond to the cancer immunotherapy which warrants further investigation to optimize this strategy. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9), as a versatile genome engineering tool, has become popular in the biology research field and it was also applied to optimize tumor immunotherapy. Moreover, CRISPR-based high-throughput screening can be used in the study of immunomodulatory drug resistance mechanism. In this review, we summarized the development as well as the application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the cancer immunotherapy and discussed the potential problems that may be caused by this combination.

Human Cell ◽  
2022 ◽  
Tian Huan ◽  
Dongfeng Chen ◽  
Guodong Liu ◽  
Hailing Zhang ◽  
Xiaoyan Wang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 903
Avinoam Reichman ◽  
Alexander Kunz ◽  
Jara J. Joedicke ◽  
Uta E. Höpken ◽  
Anna Keib ◽  

Chimeric-antigen-receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy is already widely used to treat patients who are relapsed or refractory to chemotherapy, antibodies, or stem-cell transplantation. Multiple myeloma still constitutes an incurable disease. CAR-T-cell therapy that targets BCMA (B-cell maturation antigen) is currently revolutionizing the treatment of those patients. To monitor and improve treatment outcomes, methods to detect CAR-T cells in human peripheral blood are highly desirable. In this study, three different detection reagents for staining BCMA-CAR-T cells by flow cytometry were compared. Moreover, a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to detect BCMA-CAR-T cells was established. By applying a cell-titration experiment of BCMA-CAR-T cells, both methods were compared head-to-head. In flow-cytometric analysis, the detection reagents used in this study could all detect BCMA-CAR-T cells at a similar level. The results of false-positive background staining differed as follows (standard deviation): the BCMA-detection reagent used on the control revealed a background staining of 0.04% (±0.02%), for the PE-labeled human BCMA peptide it was 0.25% (±0.06%) and for the polyclonal anti-human IgG antibody it was 7.2% (±9.2%). The ability to detect BCMA-CAR-T cells down to a concentration of 0.4% was similar for qPCR and flow cytometry. The qPCR could detect even lower concentrations (0.02–0.01%). In summary, BCMA-CAR-T-cell monitoring can be reliably performed by both flow cytometry and qPCR. In flow cytometry, reagents with low background staining should be preferred.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Ali Zarezadeh Mehrabadi ◽  
Fatemeh Roozbahani ◽  
Reza Ranjbar ◽  
Mahdieh Farzanehpour ◽  
Alireza Shahriary ◽  

Abstract Background Cancer is one of the critical issues of the global health system with a high mortality rate even with the available therapies, so using novel therapeutic approaches to reduce the mortality rate and increase the quality of life is sensed more than ever. Main body CAR-T cell therapy and oncolytic viruses are innovative cancer therapeutic approaches with fewer complications than common treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy and significantly improve the quality of life. Oncolytic viruses can selectively proliferate in the cancer cells and destroy them. The specificity of oncolytic viruses potentially maintains the normal cells and tissues intact. T-cells are genetically manipulated and armed against the specific antigens of the tumor cells in CAR-T cell therapy. Eventually, they are returned to the body and act against the tumor cells. Nowadays, virology and oncology researchers intend to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy by utilizing CAR-T cells in combination with oncolytic viruses. Conclusion Using CAR-T cells along with oncolytic viruses can enhance the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy in destroying the solid tumors, increasing the permeability of the tumor cells for T-cells, reducing the disturbing effects of the immune system, and increasing the success chance in the treatment of this hazardous disease. In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in using oncolytic viruses alone and in combination with other therapeutic approaches such as CAR-T cell therapy in pre-clinical and clinical investigations. This principle necessitates a deeper consideration of these treatment strategies. This review intends to curtly investigate each of these therapeutic methods, lonely and in combination form. We will also point to the pre-clinical and clinical studies about the use of CAR-T cell therapy combined with oncolytic viruses.

Michael Northend ◽  
William Wilson ◽  
Wendy Osborne ◽  
Christopher P. Fox ◽  
Andrew John Davies ◽  

The addition of polatuzumab vedotin to bendamustine and rituximab (Pola-BR) has been shown to improve overall survival (OS) in stem cell transplant (SCT)-ineligible patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). It is also increasingly used as bridging to CAR T-cell therapy (CAR-T). We retrospectively analysed the efficacy of Pola-BR in 133 patients at 28 UK institutions. Treatment intent was bridging to CAR-T for N=40, re-induction with planned SCT for N=13 and stand-alone treatment for N=78. The overall response rate (ORR) was 57.0% (complete response (CR) 32.8%). After median 7.7 months follow-up, median PFS and OS were 4.8 months and 8.2 months respectively. For stand-alone treatment shortened PFS was associated with bulk disease (>7.5cm) (HR 2.32 (95% CI 1.23-4.38), p=0.009), >1 prior treatment (HR 2.17 (95% CI 1.19-3.95), p=0.01) and refractoriness to the last treatment (HR 3.48 (95% CI 1.79-6.76), p<0.001). For CAR-T bridging the ORR was 42.1% (CR 18.4%) and for treatment after CAR-T failure the ORR was 43.8% (CR 18.8%). These data demonstrate efficacy for Pola-BR as a treatment for SCT-ineligible patients with R/R DLBCL, help to delineate which patients may benefit most, and provide preliminary evidence of efficacy as bridging to CAR-T and after CAR-T failure.

2022 ◽  
Vol 208 (2) ◽  
pp. 278-285 ◽  
Nohelly Derosiers ◽  
William Aguilar ◽  
David A. DeGaramo ◽  
Avery D. Posey

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